Linearestimation of bulls-producers of holstein and ukrainian black-and-white dairy breeds on exterior type of their daughters

Laduka V. I., Khmel'nichiy L. M., Shevchenko A. P.

The results of studies on the estimation sires of different origin on the conformation type daughters in the herd from breeding Sumy interbreed type of the Ukrainian Black-and-White dairy breed. Assessment exterior type firstborns by the method of linear classification was conducted according to the latest recommendations of the ICAR. Research on linear classification of cows showed that the use of methods of linear classification allows sufficiently to differentiate sires for conformation type of body structure and udder of their daughters. Scores daughter's bulls of this herd on a 100 point scale overall above average. Notable on assessment are daughters, obtained from sires Holsteins compared to contemporaries, parents of which are bulls of Ukrainian Black-and-White dairy breed.
The results of estimation daughters of sires for descriptive traits of conformation type indicate a significant variability of the evaluated characteristics, which varies from 3.7 to 7.1. To select among estimated bulls unconditional leader impossible, however, better half for number of descriptive traits, it can be noted Holstein sire Hayies 124095559. His daughter was differed by higher scores for development traits of height (5.9), angularity (7.0), rump width (6.3 points), attachment the front (6.4 points) and rear (6.7) udder parts, сentral ligament (6.1 points), udder depth (6.3 points) and teats length (4.5 points).
Comparing coefficients of variation group signs with a descriptive note that irrespective herd of origin and for sire within each descriptive trait revealed the existence of high phenotypic variability. No one group descendants of daughters from eight estimated sires does not have absolute superiority over others, by phenotypic consolidation of all estimated descriptive traits of the exterior. However, the lowest coefficients of variation within daughters of sires herds were observed for depth of the body (of 15.6 to 22.8%), position of rump (15,0-24,4%), teats length (11,8-22,4%), locomotion (from 13.6 to 22.0) and fatness (a 13.9-26.4 per cent).
Milk yield of firstborns depends on traits that characterize manifestation of dairy type daughters estimated by type of sires (r=0,284-0,466), development of the body (r=0,343-0,490), udder (r=0,332-0,481) and total scores (r=0,221 0,328 and) with reliability P<0,05-0,001.
The use of uniform methods of linear classification of dairy cattle cows allowed at a high level of reliability and objectivity to differentiate estimated sires for conformation of their daughters, to identify among them improvers and bad-sires type of the body structure and udder in the offspring. The advantage for offspring sires of Holstein breed of foreign selection is observed.
High coefficients of variability individual descriptive traits of the exterior indicate the need for improvement in some cows Sumy interbreed type of Ukrainian Black-and-White dairy herds under control at the present stage selection through the appropriate corrective selection of bulls-improvers, estimated by type of their daughters.

Gametes and genotypes genetic changeability for animal population in dependence on level of consolidation of their heredity

Petrenko I.P., Birykova O.D.

Method, corresponding formulas, programs for the theoretical analysis of probabilistic formation of genetic changeability of gametes and genotypes for agricultural animals (birds) on additive genetic potential of activity ("+" and "-" A.G.P.A.) of chromosomes (haplotypes) at the different levels of consolidation of their heredity are worked out. Concrete analysis of genetic changeability of gametes and genotypes of animals, and also genotypic structure of gene pool of breed and gametes on balance of chromosomes (haplotypes) with ("+" and "-" A.G.P.A. ) at the different levels of consolidation of their heredity conducted for a cattle in the conditions of the protracted, intensive selection (bulls and cows) on the signs of the suckling productivity.

Morphological features of cow’s udder of dairy breeds and their relationship with milk yield

Polupan Yu. P., Oleshko V. P.

Differences between breeds, degree of genetic determination and level of correlative varia-bility with milk yield and morphological traits of udder and teats were investigated in 52 first-calf heifers of "Agrosvit" breeding farm and 32 ones of Schorsa breeding farm, Kyiv region. Significant difference among the Ukrainian Black-and White Dairy animals with high level of Holstein inher-itance and the Holstein purebred same age animals by some measurements and udder indices hasn’t been found. Heritability of some morphological traits of udder (father's influence strength) varied from 3.0 to 73.1%, and influence of linear belonging was 0.5-25.9%. The found correlative variabil-ity patterns with milk yield demonstrate the most predictive value of measurements of width (r = 49.9-50.1%), circumference (30.5-34.4%) and length (22.6-39.8%) udder, length (14.0-32.7%) and distance (20.4-41.3%) between the front teats and indices of conditional (11.7-39.6%) and relative (34.5-42. 0%) sizes of udder.

Influence of популяционно-генетических and paratypic factors on the signs of the milk productivity of cows of the ukrainian red-and-white dairy breed

Khmel'nichiy L. M., Loboda V. P.

Scientific-production research on the number cows of Ukrainian Red-and-White dairy breed belonging to the enterprise "Raiz-Maximko" branch Romny of Sumy region and breeding farm "Piskivske", Bakhmatsky district, Chernihiv region was conducted.
The calculated values of inheritance traits of milk productivity cows by analysis of variance using the impact of “father-daughter” are more or less variability depending on the evaluated lactation, but in all cases reliable at various degrees of Fisher criterion.
The results about milk yield, fat content in milk and milk fat production almost to the same extent determined by the genotype of animals with a slight difference within lactations. The coefficients of inheritance of milk yield per lactation of recorded cows of the herd "Raiz-Maximko" indicate that this index on 18,5-26,2% depends on genetic material and, on 73,8-81,5 % – from paratypic factors, respectively.
In the herd "Piskivske" coefficients inheritance of milk yield is somewhat lower (h2 = of 0,128-0,194) in comparison with the herd "Raiz-Maximko", however, the highest evaluation of content and yield of milk fat.
The highest rate inheritance of milk yield for lactation best demonstrates the highest efficiency for the selection of cows on this trait. The highest coefficients inheritance of the content and yield of milk fat allow in a faster way genetically improve these traits in the herd under conditions and selection them.
According to the research age the frequency of occurrence of traits of milk production between first and second, third, fourth and higher lactations cows controlled herds had sufficiently different variation coefficients of variability for all considered indicators with high degrees of reliability.
The positive and reliable coefficients of correlations are convincing evidence about influence of live weight replacement heifers, which characterizes the intensity of their development, on signs of subsequent milk production of cows in first lactation.
The nature of inheritance gives reason to expect high efficiency of mass selection for traits of milk productivity with an advantage of content and yield of milk fat in the milk. The conditions of intensive formation of live weight replacement heifers of Ukrainian Red-and-White dairy breed in the process of growing significant impact on the level of future milk yield of fresh cows.

Cows' milk productivity depending on the nature of the lactation activities

Afanasenko V.Y., Babenko H. I.

The studies were conducted between 2009 and2013 in terms of an agricultural cooperative "Vostok", Izium district, Kharkov region. For the analysis of the primary data were used zootechnical and pedigree records 1492 cows Ukrainian Black-and-White dairy breed. Evaluation of milk production was carried out with the definition of daily milk yield by months of lactation. Type of lactation curve was determined. It was determined the type of lactation curve.
Processing of biometric data by means of mathematical statistics.
In this herd milk yield in the first 305 days of lactation were more than 4300 kg of milk.
Most of cows (59% in the first lactation and 64% for the second) are unstable type of lactation, which is characterized by two vertex lactation curves. The part first calving with persistent type lactation was 33% on the second lactation decreased to 27%.
Cows with persistent type of lactation for first lactation milk yield by significantly exceeded (morethan 18%) cows with unstable type in descending rapidly lactation curve.
With an increasein milk production for the second lactation cows distribution by type of lactation indicates a decrease in its stability and reduce the time to achieve the highest daily milk yield.
The presence of distinct age repeatability characteristic features of the lactation curve type, that is, most of the cows in lactation are following a similar pattern of change of daily milk yield.
The cows with low productivity during the first lactation increase its second. The intensity of growth of milk yield for the third lactation has feed back from its increase for the second.
In this case, the cow, with the yield of milk the first 305 days of lactation more 4700 kg of milk were observed most unstable dynamics of milk production in the next lactation, and the decline in the second lactation exceeded 20%, and then gradually increasing productivity.
The most stable growth performance and slight fluctuations characterized animal performance close to the average for the herd and strong sustainable type of lactation.
Analysis of the distribution lactation cows by type of activity (for first lactation) indicates a statistically significant increasein the proportion of cows with strong persistent type from 14 to 32% in the group of animals that were observed steady increase in milk production from the first to third lactation.

Effect of genotype and environment factors on signs of breast productive cows ukraynskoy breast brown rocks

Boyko Y.N.

Studing of impact genotypic and paratypic factors on the level of development traits of milk productivity cows were held at the basic experimental farms according assessment of milk productivity the first, third and higher lactations. Material studies as the primary zoo-technical data of four breeding farms for the breeding of Ukrainian Brown dairy breed in the Sumy region.
The resulting coefficients indicate an significant influence lines and sires on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of milk productivity cows of the whole study population Ukrainian brown dairy breed. As a result of the research found highest power of genetic influence on indices of milk yield and fat content in milk for the first, third and best of lactation provides inheritance of sire. The effect of linear facilities sire on quantitative and qualitative traits of dairy cattle productivity was less,significantly, but in most cases reliable and ranged from 1.4 to 4.7 per cent. Milk productivity was determined by mother line on 2,8–7,2%.
The resulting coefficients impact of genotypic and paratypic factors convincingly evidenced that milk yield cows of studied farms significantly determinates greatest factor of sire, somewhat less factor the mother and the lowest line of the father. The regularities, which allows to increase the level of milk production of livestock, should be used in the process of selection and breeding work with Ukrainian Brown dairy breed.

Using computer modeling inbreeding ukrainian ride breed of horses

Bondarenko O.V.

On the example of Ukrainian Ride breed of horses developed variants of breeding programs for populations with a small number. With the help of computer simulation determined the effectiveness of the selection process of selection while maintaining the purebreed population and its openness to enter the blood improve the breed in different percentages. Eachversionof the breeding program to estimate the expected coefficient of inbreeding, genetic progress on the performance and body development.
For the Ukrainian population horses breeds we have developed two options selection program. It is supposed to raise the intensity of selection by increasing the use of artificial insemination, reducing the assessment period stallions, mares and the generation interval by inclusion inbreeding stallions for system testing workability.
Evaluating the effectiveness of applied breeding programs carried out by calculation of expected performance for 5 years.
Overall, the first option (A), for a given period of inbreeding will increase from the current 0.055%, and the inbreeding coefficient is expected to reach 3.585. Genetic progress of capacity will be 0,025 points, while the average performance of horses in sport expected 6.625 points. According to the table, the height at the withers mother of the average amount to 165.25 cm. The second program selection (B) suggests that the increase in inbreeding a 5-year period will amount to 0.085%, respectively, while after the appointed period, the average coefficient of inbreeding is expected to reach 3.555. The averageper for manceon the "B" program expected 7.125 points. Accordingly indicators Height will be165.85 cm.
Thus, from the genetic point of view, option "B" program is the most desirable, but in order to avoid inbreeding need to improve every 2-3 generation to enter the manufacturing part of stallions source rocks.
Established in studies of patterns suggest that to improve local breeding populations numbering1000 – 1500 heads, breeding nucleuss hould be open to enters blood source rocks of at least 30%. To increase the average annual genetic progress for the workability and the height at the withers, is th emost desirable option "B" selection programs.

Influence of cow live weight on duration of their lives

Danets L.N.

The results of studying the effect of live weight of heifers for the duration of their life had been reported. It was established that group influence degree of heifer live weight on their life expectancy depends on the age of live weight determination: in 6th months age these degree was the highest (η2 = 4,9%), and later on declines to 1% at 18th months age. The lowest degree of influence of the analyzed factors had been observed at birth (η2 = 0,6%).
Lightweight heifers inferior not only weight but also the duration of life time, because these heifers remained in herd less time (from 675 days till 1366 days).

Influence of training intensity on behavior reactions of two years trotting ofspring

Kornienko А.А.

As during training horsemen sufficiently rarely attention applies on the type of HNA, and horse practice on general charts as it was already talked higher, the purpose of the conducted re-searches was to learn influence of training intensity on changing of behaviour reactions which stipu-late HNA trotting the sapling of two years, effectiveness of appearances, dynamics of improvement of records.For basis for determination as HNA the behaviour reaction of horse was taken on un-known exciter (unknown person, measured stick and ribbon) during taking of the basic measurings. During taking of measurings the conduct of horse, which was expressed in a rate and character of output during a leadingout and establishment to stable, was fixed, reaction on the measured stick during taking of measurings. On the basis of the shown reactions, by us, in obedience to the table of features of conduct of trotters of different types of HNA, developed by VSIH horse were up-diffused.It is set that sapling as orlov so Russian trotting breeds characterized higher excitability of the nervous system of the purchased character in trainings separations, where a general volume of trot works was less than 5000 m (3 hippodromcircles), conducted on very frisky speed together with high-frequency of performances in prizes in a month and high speed of frisky works stipulates fixing of excitation of the nervous system.
It is set that two years orlov trot, which after behaviour reaction were taken to I type HNA had better result with leadthrough of frisky works in 2.23 – 2.27. It is discovered that leadthrough of frisky works in 2.30 – 2.35 is instrumental in the decline of excitability for horse which after a conduct was characterized IIIA by a type, and vice versa increase.For Russian trotter which has I type of HNA the best temp for speed training is 2.18 – 2.22. The hire temp more than 2.15 – 2.18 makes nervious horses with IIIA type of HNA and decries his result.
The comparative analysis of indexes of effectiveness of results is conducted trotting the sap-ling of different types HNA in obedience to the classic method of his determination with got during researches information and the found out tendencies allow to talk that the time-study of conduct during taking of measurings can serve as an auxiliary mean for determination of features of conduct, character, which are the display of HNA.

Effective stabilazing selection and improving rebounds for fertility, live weight and size at a dilution mink

Korkh O.V.

The purpose of the study is to provide a scientific foundation of the effectiveness of stabilizing selection and improving choice according to fertility, weight and size while breeding purebred minks of the color group Sapphire and Blue Iris.
To accomplish the goal the research has been carried out at a joint venture with foreign investments ,,Izyumsky fur farm” of Kharkiv region, which was the only Sapphire and Blue Iris mink reproducer in Ukraine.
The stabilizing selection options (animals with developed characteristics at the level M +/2) according to fertility, live weight and size compared to other variants of both homogeneous and heterogeneous selection of animals with productivity level less than M/2 and moret han M +/2 have been researched. Nine variants of pairs selection have been formed.
To study the genealogical structure of the genetic fund of Sapphire and Blue Iris minks and of their productive traits a primary zootechnical account in the breeding nucleus has been analyzed.
The studies have revealed that the difference in daughters’ fertility produced ingroups of selection pairs II–I and II–III was 0,4 in both color groups or 6,3–6,7 % in favour of the latter. While using mothers in I and III selection variants the similar difference ranged on average from 1,3 to 1,7 heads or 23,8–30,9%. Mean while, from males and females of the Sapphire group III of pairs (M+ /2) daughters prevailing peerson 9,7–54,9 % were produced, and of the group Blue Iris – on 4,3–43,1 %.
The difference in weight among the daughters of Sapphire group produced from mothers of modal class II-II, was minimal 1,4–2,2 %, while the use of small mothers of different options of selection pairs was 9,4–16,7 %, and of big mothers – 7,1–12,9 %. In the group of Blue Iris the difference was respectively 2,2–3,8 %, 6,3–12,5 %; 6,9–9,4 %.
The smallest differences were according to body size index among mothers of the modal class and their daughters, produced during stabilizing selection (II–II), as well as by a heterogeneous selection (II–III and II–I) using the females of a modal class and males of higher and lower classes of distribution.
In the course of the research the variability narrowing of the main indicators of the minks of the secolor groups has not been found. The stabilizing selection has provided the offspring more similar to their mothers, indicating the possibility of its wide use in the isolated genetic fund herds of minks. The action of regression in the selection of animals of the modal class was 1,5–2,0 times lower than in the variants of using the worst and best females in homogeneous and heterogeneous selection.
Seven perspective genealogical male groups have been discovered in the breeding nucleus
of the Sapphire color group, and two in the Blue Iris group. Minks breeding using the segenealogical groups of producers provided stabilizing of the selection options and elimination of unplanned copulations.

Genetic polymorphism in the growth hormone gene (bGH) of the southern meat cattle breed

Kramarenko A.S., Gladyr, E.A., Naydyonova V.A., Dubinskiy A.L., Zinov’eva N.A.

Polymorphisms within a candidate gene can be detected due to their association with yield traits and can be used in the development of a marker-assisted selection (MAS) program. bGH directly or indirectly plays a notable role in tissue growth and fat metabolism. Therefore, there is great interest in using the bGH gene to improve production traits in different cattle breeds.
The bGH gene is localized in bovine chromosome 19; it includes 5 exons and 4 introns. The best known of these polymorphisms is the leucine (L) to valine (V) substitution at position 127 in exon 5 in the GH gene which can be characterized using the AluI restriction enzyme (bGH_ex5_C2141G).
This study aimed to evaluate the genetic polymorphism within growth hormone gene in the Southern Meat cattle (SM) breed using PCR-RFLP technique. The allelic polymorphism of bGH gene has been studied among the SM breed cows (n = 190) at the state enterprise experimental farm “Askaniyskoe” (Kherson region). The following DNA restriction fragments were expected for bGH/AluI polymorphism: 240 bp (not digested) for VV genotype, 173 and 67 bp for LL genotype and 240, 173 and 67 bp for VL genotype.
Distribution of the three genotypes was 62.1% (LL), 30.0% (LV) and 7.9 % (VV), so that most of cows was homozygous for the leucine allele. The two alleles for bGH locus were observed in the SM cattle (L and V) and the L allele (0.771) frequency was found to be higher than V allele frequency (0.229). The observed, expected heterozygosity and Wright’s fixation index of bGH/AluI locus were Ho = 0.300, He = 0.353 and Fis = 0.150, respectively. Studied population showed no significant deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) at bGH locus.

Influence live weight bulls ukrainian black-and-white dairy breed on their meat productivity

Kruk О.Р.

Meat productivity of animals depends on live weight and nutritional status that include factors of age, breed, sex, feeding and housing conditions. The main factor in the formation of the morphological structure of fish body in ontogeny is their mass. Therefore it is important to determine the optimal live weight of animals before slaughter.
Studies have been performed during 2014 - 2015 years at the Farm "Zhuravushka" in Kyiv region (Brovary district).
By increasing the actual live weight of gobies before slaughter more than up to 500 kg, a muscle tissue output increases by 0.33% compared with the weight from 350 to 400 kg. With the increase of actual live weight of animals before slaughter a net gain also increases. The quality of the body is determined by the ratio of muscle, fat, connective and bone tissue. The largest share ( from 7,4 to 71,3%) gaining a muscle tissue. While they studied different varieties of muscle tissue output, the existence of varietal differences in muscle tissue output with increasing live weight of animals before slaughter was found. With the increase in actual live weight before slaughter a muscle tissue output of an extra quality increases except animals over 500 kg. A muscle tissue output of a first grade with increased actual live weight before slaughter increases, and of the second – decreases. It is found that an increase of a muscle mass of an extra and first grades compared to the live weight before slaughter (from 350 to 400 kg) is higher by 1,18 (from 401 to 450 kg), 1,30 (from 451 to 500 kg), and 1,52 (500 kg).As for the second grade, an increase in 1,15 times is observed only in the group of animals of over 500 kg. A particular grade muscles weight varies depending on changes in actual live weight before slaughter. A muscles mass of dorsal, chest, shoulder, lumbar, hip and scapular parts of fish body that are of an extra and first grades with increasing live weight before slaughter – increases; and a muscle mass of a second grade (from bosom, neck, chest , front and rear parts) - decreases. It was developed [2] a system of classification of muscle growth intensity according to which the "best muscle" is characterized of high - medium growth intensity (muscles of the pelvic girdle, pelvic limbs, lumbar are and abdominal wall).A percentage of bone tissue decreases while the gobies actual live weight before slaughter increases. Ana dipose tissue mass (a mass over 500 kg) increases in 2,08 times compared to animals slaughtered with the actual live weight of 350 to 400 kg; the mass of connective tissue - in 2,68 times. A body mass index (the muscle-bone ratio and index of muscle) with increasing actual live weight of gobies before slaughter increases.

For slaughter and meat qualities of bull-calves of the ukrainian red-and-write dairy breed

Loboda V. P.

Reproductive ability of boars-sires breed pietrain in southern Ukraine

Melnik V., Kravchenko E.,Galimov S., Starodubets O.

In modern pig attach great importance to the introduction of industrial crossing and hybridization, as an additional reserve to increase the production of pig production. Pietrain breed pigs for the first time brought to Ukraine in 1964 to improve the meat quality of other breeds and hybrids at industrial cross, as well as to create synthetic lines in the hybridization.
Studies have shown that breeding boars Pietrain breed selection have varying differences in reproductive ability, which must be considered in a production environment when using these animals.
The average volume of ejaculate in boars-sires Hungarian selection was more than the German selection of 33 ml, 56 ml in the French and Danish – 156 ml, respectively.
Fertilizing capacity of sperm of male pigs was determined after artificial insemination of sows non-factional way. In determining the mobility of sperm in the ejaculate is not allowed to continue to use ejaculates with sperm motility less than 7 points. The difference in sperm motility indicates that Hungarian and French breeding boars dominated German and Danish origin at 0.3-0.7 points.
Indicators thermoresistant sample 6.3-7.3 points after 3 hours of incubation at t = + 380 evidence of satisfactory quality of sperm, which allow for insemination.
When comparing the concentration of sperm in the ejaculate we have established that this figure was the highest in the French breeding boars 212.3 million/ml, an increase of 21.5 million/ml than those sired by Hungarian selection, 25.9 million/ml – German and 28.6 million/ml – Danish breeding. According to our calculations, the total number of motile sperm in the ejaculate was greater in boars Hungarian selection 56.6 billion, up 4.0 billion. More than the French boar breeding 9.3 billion – German and 29,5 billion Danish.
The results of the artificial insemination of sows of different genotypes sperm Pietrain boars show that the highest percentage of fertility was 85.2% in sows fertilized by sperm boars French selection, and the lowest 79.1% in the Danish breeding boars.
Best prolific sows was fertilized with sperm Pietrain boars Hungarian selection – 10.1 piglets, 9.8 – French, 9.6 – German and the lowest 9.1 – Danish breeding. Safety of pigs at weaning was within 88-91%, which is in a production environment is satisfactory.
At pure breed Pietrain breeding sows farrow noted an average of 8.7 piglets, as well as many emergency and abnormal litters especially in nulliparous therefore, in these experiments the materials we have not considered. Further study of the reproductive ability of breeding boars breed Pietrain promotes effective and efficient in their use of technology of artificial insemination, and the creation of industrial cross hybridization of synthetic lines.

Selection method of forming high-performance families and evaluation sumy inner breeder type ukrainian black-and-white dairy breed

Oblyvantsov V. V.

The aim of the research is formation of breeding families of highly productive cows Sumy interbreed type of Ukrainian Black-and-White dairy breed, estimation of their productive traits and determine prospects of further work with them in the leading breeding farm of Sumy region. Scientific-production research in the period 1997-2014 years were conducted in the herd of cattle breeding farm "First of may". The object of the study were animals of genealogical breeding families.
With each generation of ancestors among breeding families of mother cows decreased phenotypic variability of milk yield and milk fat. From the first to the fourth generation cows the coefficient of variation for milk yield decreased from 21.5% to 12.8%, fat content of milk, from 4.8% to 2.3%, respectively. The calculation of selection and genetic parameters showed that the coefficients of inheritance of milk yield and fat content in milk through the maternal line in this genealogy the families were high.
Each breeding family of cows consists of animals from different generations and therefore, to obtain high-quality offspring, at each stage of selection in breeding selection to use sires planned lines of high breeding value, reasonably estimated by the quality of offspring, taking into account his performance and the type of the body structure. This will speed up the selection process when working with families, and in turn, to obtain sires of high breeding value.
Due to the fact that the herd has a significant amount of high-productive cows we have carried out work on foundation and formation of new prospective families from these cows, paying simultaneous attention to their offspring. To do this, the herd was carried out the selection of highly productive cows breeding core (n=30), the potential founders of new families. Animals had 1-3 calving, average milk yield for the highest lactation was as follows: yield 7631±48.1 kg milk (Cv=3,5%), fat content in milk 3,88±0,021% (Cv=3,5%), the amount of milk fat 296±2.8 kg (Cv=5,2%), and milk yield their mothers of the highest lactation was, respectively 6244±348,8 kg (Cv=21,6%), 3,83±0,085% (Cv=8.6 %), and 239±12.2 kg (Cv=19.8 %).
All formed genealogical breeding families are characterized by high milk production and at the present stage of breeding is promising. Breeding work with families in the herd of cattle should be aimed at increasing number of animals in families, individual milking of cows, estimation of animals according to body type, reproductive ability and productive longevity. In the current breeding families of cows need to carry out a reasonable selection of breeding sires planned lines for the purpose of development and improvement of hereditary qualities of the ancestors. According to the results of work with families, the best of them in the future needs to be turned back to stud-flock. At the same time should create new breeding families through the assessment and selection of potential cows-the founders, creation of optimal technological conditions for growing offspring with the aim of maximum realization of genetic potential of milk productivity.

Functional activity of boar semen varied mitochondrial haplotypes

Pochernyaev K.F., Basalevich A.V., Kovalenko V.F.

Mitochondria are placed in the middle of the tail of mature sperm directly play a critical role during fertilization. Work mitochondrial respiratory chain is under the dual control of mitochondrial and nuclear genomes. Mitochondrial DNA markers located D-loop region that does not code for proteins of the respiratory chain can only the genetic marker of mitochondria’s. The applied PCR-RFLP approach potentially allows to define a 18 different of mitochondrial haplotypes signposted with Latin letters A, B1, B2, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J1, J2, K, L, M, N, O , P. Tests on functional activity of sperm was performed by two methods. Temperature resistance was determined by incubation of sperm 3:00 at 38°C, temperature stress resistance – incubation of sperm under multiple contrasting temperature change from 30-minute intervals in the range from 38°C to 13°C (prethreshold limit of temperature shock). In both methods counted the number of sperm with forward-linear mobility, which is expressed as a percentage of the total. Among the investigated boars were identified five different mitochondrial haplotypes: A, C, G, L, N. Depending on certain haplotypes, regardless of breed affiliation, boars were grouped into five groups. Data of the functional activity of sperm tested for resistance term stress little different in the boars with different mitochondrial haplotypes. The exception was only boar semen haplotype N. At the same time, the mobility of sperm tested for temperature stress resistance dependent on mitochondrial haplotypes boars. The boars with mitochondrial haplotypes G and N were the best results of thermal resistance – 43,75 ± 0,66 and 36,3 ± 10,9%, respectively. Simultaneously, boars with A and L haplotypes sperm viability decreased by almost 2-3 times. Thus, the results suggest that pigs with mitochondrial haplotypes G and N are more thermally stable sperm. Mitochondrial haplotypes may be genetic markers of mitochondria with different levels of gene expression of respiratory chain enzymes.

Analysis of reproductive cows’ ability in aberdeen angus breed and ukrainian angus meat breed

Roi Yu.S.

The aim of the study was to analyze and to evaluate reproductive ability and milkiness of cows Aberdeen-Angus breed and created Ukrainian Angus meat breed year-round in-range animals without major premises in the East of Ukraine. Experiments on studying reproductive ability was conducted in the farm "Agro Novoselivka 2009" Novovodolaz'skyi district, Kharkov region. Animals in the experimental farm provides year-round for outdoor system without major premises. Studies were made on the basis of economic data and breeding records for the herd of cows Aberdeen-Angus bulls of British breeding and created Ukrainian Angus meat breed. Cow breeds were formed into two groups of 20 animals each. For studies of the following factors: age onset of physiological and puberty, age at first calving, duration of pregnancy, service period, calving interval, was calculated index of inseminations and the coefficient of reproductive ability.
In cows, Aberdeen Angus breed physiological and puberty comes early. But fertility after the first insemination was higher by 10 % in cows created Ukrainian Angus meat breed. Calves from cows of this breed, had a greater live weight on 6.9 kg from calves Aberdeen Angus british breeding. Cows created breed had a milkiness on 44.3 % higher compared with cows of Aberdeen Angus breed. Cows with calving interval more than 365 days were on 10% more among cows of Aberdeen Angus breed. This is because cows of this breed have a longer service-period than cows created Ukrainian Angus meat breed. With the increasing service-period, indicated the deterioration reproductive ability of cows, which leads to increase in the index of insemination, the decrease of the coefficient of reproductive ability, increase calving interval and, as a consequence, the fall calf crop, culling through barrenness cows and decrease the economic effectiveness of cattle breeding.

Ethograms ofbehavior forms of american quarter horse

Suprun Iryna, Stanier Bert

The article presents experimental data on research and application of stabilizing rebound and amending homogeneous rebound for fecundity, body weight and size at thoroughbred breeding in the gene pools herds minks sapphireand blue iris.In the course of the research the variability narrowing of the main indicators of the minks of these color groups has not been found. The stabilizing selection has provided the offspring more similar to their mothers, indicating the possibility of its wide use in the isolated genetic fund herds of minks. The action of regression in the selection of animals of the modal class was 1,5–2,0 times lower than in the variants of using the worst and best females in homogeneous and heterogeneous selection.
Seven perspective genealogical male groups have been discovered in the breeding nucleus of the Sapphire color group, and two in the Blue Iris group. Minks breeding using these genealogical groups of producers provided stabilizing of the selection options and elimination of unplanned copulations.

The dependence of ukrainian black and white dairy milk pruductivity on the body items measurements after their first calving

Fedorovych V.V.

An important element of selective work is to evaluate and select cows which are based on significant connection between the external structure of animals and their economic useful traits, including milk productivity. According to that, the purpose of our research was to study the dependence of the milk production of cows Ukrainian Black-and-White dairy cattle on their body parts measurements after the first calving.
The researches were conducted using 2957 cows of Ukrainian Black-and-White in Shevchenko PLAE in Horokhiv region, Volyn district and PLE "Ivanivske" in Terebovl region, Ternopil district. Evaluation of milk productivity of experimental cows was carried out according zootechnical accounting data (during the last 20years) for the first, second, third and best lactations.
It was established that the animals with height at the shoulder was 133-135 sm after the first calving, chest depth - 74-76, width of chest - 47-49, chest girt behaind shoulders - 191-195,skewed body length - 153-157, width of ribbing - 57 or more and metacarpus girt - 18,1-19.0 sm. had the highest yield and milk fat amount. However, it should be noted that the cows with height at the shoulder - 133-135 sm. had significant advantage in comparison with cows which height at the shoulder was 136 sm and more during the I and II lactations. They has the advantage in yield during the best lactation in comparison with cows with height at the shoulder 130-132 sm. Animals which chest depth was 74-76 sm had the advantage in comparison with animals of the same age which chest depth was - 67 sm, 68-70; 71-73 and 77 sm or more for the second lactation in comparison with chest depth - 77 sm or more for the third lactation; cows with width of chest of 47-49 sm in comparison to 43 і 50-52 sm the cows during the first lactation and to the animals with 50-52 and 53 sm and more during the second and best and lactations; cows with chest girt behaind shoulders - 191-195 sm comparing to the cows with 181-185, 186-190, 196 sm of the same age during the second lactation and in comparison with the cows with 186-190, 196 sm or more for the best lactation; cows with skewed body length - 153-157 sm comparing to the animals with 158-162 sm during the second and better lactation; cows with the width of ribbing - 57 sm and more comparing to 47 and 54-56 sm during the second lactation; animals with metacarpus girt - 18,1-19,0 sm comparing to the animals in others groups under experiment during the second lactation (exception - cow with metacarpus girt to 17.0 sm) and animals with 17,1-18,0 and 19,1-20,0 sm during the best lactation. Among other groups of cows above-mentioned indicators also observed difference, however, for the most part it was unreliable.

Phenotypical correlations between the signs of linear estimation of first-calf cows of sumy internal pedigree type of the ukrainian black-and-white dairy breed

Khmel'nichiy S.L.

The Association between estimated traits of the linear classification fresh cows Sumy interbreed type of Ukrainian Black-and-White dairy breed was studied. Experimental studies in breeding farm on breeding of Sumy interbreed type of the Ukrainian Black-and-White dairy breed "Raiz-Maximko" Sumy region were performed.
With a set of group traits that characterize dairy type of animals, highly positively correlated the body depth (R=0,431), angularity (R=0,683), the rump width (g=0,536), rear legs set (R=0,434), front (R=0,472) and rear udder attachment (R=0,410) and locomotion (p=0,377). Cows with high scores for group traits dairy type are not sufficiently well-fed, as evidenced by highly-reliable negative relationship between them and body condition score(R=-0,338).
The level of phenotypic correlations between descriptive signs and between them and their group signs of exterior. Positive and reliable correlation between height, which characterizes in certain way general development of animal, and other traits vary within from 0,138 (chest width) to 0,249 (angularity). Chest width moderately correlated with rump position (r=0,146). Body depth with a significant degree of correlation mutual related with angularity (r=0,620), rump width (r=0,526), angle of pelvic limbs (r=0,141) and rear legs set (r=0,421). Almost at the same level correlates rump width (r=0,558), the hock angle (r=0,115), hoof angle (r=0,138) and pelvic limbs set (r=0,479) with angularity. The body width has significant connection with the rear legs set (r=0,411). The angle of pelvic limbs positively correlated with hoofs angle(r=0,156).The front attachment of the udder positively correlated with all traits that characterize condition of body and limbs, from r=0,111 (rump position) to r=0,409 (angularity). The height of the rear udder attachment positively associated with variability from r=0,187 (hoof angle) to r=0,357 (rump width). Almost at the same level reliable coefficients of correlations between central ligament and individual traits of body structure were received (r=0,123-0,438).

Prediction cows produce the desired type of constitution, and adaptive capacity

Chernenko A.

The article presents the results of genetic prediction cows produce the desired type of constitution, designed for volumetric-weighting factor (VМC), taking into account the cross-sectional area of the chest and shoulder blades at the last rib, the length of the thoracic and body weight, and which is measured in liters of breast volume Division per kilogram of animal body weight.
The experimental cows were daughters of 50 Holstein bull- inseminators of Kashmire 13167177 from the line Reflection Sovering 198998 (US origin and the results of its assessment of 91 daughters 1-12308-3,47-427-3,14-386; potential bull mothers: 1-14800 -3,90-577-3,19-472).
In deviation from the mean 0,67σ VМC highly adults Holstein cows are differentiated into three types: s less then 0,58 l/kg small of volume, more than 0,64 l/kg - a large of volume, other - average of volume type constitution.
Animals two loci studied genes, in particular the growth hormone structural gene and a regulatory gene GH pituitary-specific transcription factor PIT-1. Analysis of polymorphism of studied genes was performed by PLR. Among the 50 cows, half-siblings, daughters of a bull-inseminators Cashmere 13167177, which has a growth hormone gene heterozygous genotype (LV), LL genotype was distributed most of his descendants, in particular 41 animals (82,0%), and LV genotype was distributed only 9 animals (18,0%).
It was found that the gene PIT-1 Cashmere 13167177 bull is heterozygous, and has the genotype AB. Its daughter distributed to three form allele: AB - 22 animals (44,0%) BB - 26 animals (52,0%) that AA - 2 animals (4,0%). Form allele AB is the most explosive show lactotropic function. They found 96,0%. It is found that for the selection of animals in the early ontogeny of growth hormone GH gene, and in particular form allele LL, as well as gene pituitary-specific transcription factor PIT-1 its form allele AB and BB are highly informative marker criteria, which preferably is combined with the large and the average volume of the type of constitution and high adaptability of animals.
Screening and selection of animals form allele LL and BB may reduce twice in a herd of Representatives with low adaptive capacity.
Demonstration projects to conduct selection in this direction can serve PrJSC "Agro-Soyuz", as found that the breeding stock of the company for a long time used bulls mainly of form allele.

Study of influence of negative factors of environment to the phase composition of bioceramic layers of hens’ eggs

Bordunova O.G.

In this article we show results of structural characteristics of bioceramic protective eggshell layer of hatching eggs, which consists of calcium carbonate in different crystallineforms. We have experimentally proved that negative factors of environment, genetic factors and mistakes connected to birds holding tech-nology lead to changes at phase composition of eggshell calcium carbonate that, in turn, can influence the essential characteristics of developing embryos.
Eggshell is a unique bioceramic composite material that has the characteristics like high density and solidity, certain mechanical flexibility and high gas permeability and moisture permeability [1, 2]. These physicochemical characteristics of bioceramic material of eggshell are determined by synergic ac-tion of two components – inorganic component consisting of crystalline calcium carbonate (CaCO3), and or-ganic “minor” component (specific peptides, glycoproteins, lipids, stains and etc).
Research objective was to study the direction of changes of morphological parameters of crystalline structure of bioceramic protective layer of eggshell of hens’ hatching eggs (crystalline form of calcium car-bonate as basic constituent of eggshell) due to influence of environmental negative factors, genetic factors and mistakes at birds’ holding technology.
In research we used eggs from Rod Island Red hens, Poltava Clay Chicken breed, Birkivska Barvysta (Colorful) at the beginning of productive period at the age of 8 months (30 eggs from every breed). Experi-mental farm “Borky”; hatcher “Universal 55”. X-ray diffractive experiments were conducted on automatic dif-fractometer ДРОН-4-07 (НВП «Буревестник», Russia, Automatic system ДРОН-4-07 based on microprocessor monitor, which controls goniometer ГУР-9 and sends information on PC in digital form. We used emanation CuKα (wave length 0,154 nanometer), focusing by Breggu-Brentano 0-20 (20 – breggur corner). Experimental results were sent to program package of experiment support DifWin-1(Limited Liability Company (LLC) “Etalon PTS”, Russia) for pre-assessment of the results. Identification of crystalline phases was performed using the software package Crystallographica Search-Match (Oxford Cryosystems, imposed restrictions on the elemental composition of samples by comparing experimental results with PDF-2 database cards and subsequent manual sampling.
The analysis of diffractograms obtained on samples of calcium carbonate as the basic inorganic com-ponent of eggshell of hen’s eggs showed that depending on the conditions for obtaining hatching hen’s eggs and due to adverse environmental factors, genetic factors and errors in poultry technology there are significant changes in the phase composition of the eggshell acting as egg’s bioceramic protective barrier.
Phase composition of eggshell of hen’s hatching eggs that meet technical specifications, is presented by specific crystalline form of calcium carbonate - namely calcite. Effects of negative factors of different origin on egg incubation are instead accompanied by other crystalline forms of calcite - aragonite and vaterite, which also leads to a general loosening and fragmentation of calcium carbonate layers with the following negative physiological effects.

Commercial quality of pond fish

Danilchuk G.A., Nikolaev M.

The article stated that fishery of inland waters are not developed enough, that is why the demand for fresh wate rfish and fish products not fully recoverable.
It is known that the buyer in to day's world has become very demanding for fish products. It is noted that the review of commercial quality off is stands as one of the conditions of sale safe fish products and as a result provides consumers with qualitative products. Based on the standards off is hproducts were single dout the indicators of live fish quality, conditional classification of market able fish and its characteristics. Necessary parameters forlaboratory testing and quality control of live, refrigerated, frozen, salted and smoked fish were reviewed. It was determined that the commodity defects and non contributory organoleptic properties, which presence in commercial fish prohibits sale of such fish in the trading network. The questions concerning transportation of commercial fishin the fishing practice and relations of multiple factors on survival process of transporting different age groups of fish. These requirements for intra and inter-farmfish transportation and requirements for storage and sale fishin retail trading network are mentioned.
In particular, traditional and special transportation vehicles of fish, some of their structural properties, the requirements for preparatory operations before transporting fish, for containers and water, which are designed to transport fish, to the duration of transportation, requirements for termsand conditions of storage and sale off ishintrade network are determined in the article. It is established that compliance off ishery products with commodity indicesis a prerequisite for achieving the main goal of economic activity – sale of all commodity products. As for the consumer commercial quality indicators, there is always fully determined the possibility to receives afe and high quality off ishery products.

Morphometric indicators and meat quality of fish

Danilchuk G.A., Karpenko D.A.

In this article is considered the subject of studying of commodity value and an output of finished prod-ucts of different types of fish with morphometric indicators. In the article were investigated morphometric in-dicators such as: weight and specific weight of a body, head, scales, fins, bones, interiors and pulp. All indi-cators except interiors of scales and gills is conditionally edible and the pulp is edible part. Meat quality of fish was estimated on meat coefficient.
Researches were directed on definition of meat quality and an output of raw fish products depending on specific distinctions of fish. Ways of cutting of fish and an output of fish products studied on 5 different types of fishes: bester, sturgeon Russian, sterlet, carp frame, silver carp. Meat quality of fish was estimated on meat coefficient.
This subject is very actual as it gives the chance to grow up and use those species of fish which differ in big coefficient of meat and output of finished fish products in food. At research of an output of finished fish products were used indicators of inedible, edible and conditionally edible parts that allows using fish production further for processing and receiving other fish production.
On morphometric indicators of commodity fish the biggest per cent of pulp 58,97 % , that is edible parts, had the Russian sturgeon. In the general comparison the sturgeon had much higher per cent of pulp than carp. The carp frame had the greatest maintenance of bones that more than by 3 times exceeded results of sturgeon fish. Specific weight of inedible parts was the largest in a carp frame - 67,79 %, and the smallest in the Russian sturgeon - 41,12 %. At a white silver carp the inedible part had average values and was - 48,68 %.
The high coefficient of a meat was defined at all species of sturgeon fishes in comparison with a carp frame it exceeded almost by 2,5 times. By results of the conducted researches was established economical feasibility of cultivation of sturgeon fishes in comparison with carp by quantity of edible parts and coefficient of a meat.

Performance breederhensmeat direction of productivity at different levels of lysine in fodder

Ibatullin I., Ilchuk I., Kryvenok M.

Feeding animal feed chickens with different levels of lysine resulted in some changes in performance.
In the first weeks of the experiment the intensity of egg production in poultry of different groups was almost identical. With 30 weeks of age can observe changes - namely, lower productivity group 2 chickens that consumed feed with the lowest lysine content - 0.73%. This trend continued steadily until the end of the first period of oviposition.
In contrast, the experimental groups of chickens that ate feed with a high content of lysine 0.77; 0.79 and 0.81%, productivity was higher than the control birds and in 2 groups.
If we analyze averages laying intensity we can note that the highest productivity in chickens was 3, 4 and 5 groups. By this measure they exceed the control at 3.0 - 4.2%. The difference between the control group and the fifth was likely - he ˂0,05.
Thus, in the first 13 weeks of laying (up to 39 weeks of age) is the most effective level of its lysine con-tent in fodder - 0.81%.
After peak performance, feeding of animal feed with different levels of lysine also affected the figures egg.
In particular, during the period observed lower rates of egg laying hens in two groups that ate feed with the lowest lysine content - 0.71%.
Feeding animal feed with higher levels of amino acids studied birds 3, 4 and 5 groups did not result in significant changes in performance. Although there have been a tendency to increase the intensity of laying hens in these groups, but it was small and not statistically probable. Thus, analysis of secondary data inten-sity egg production in laying the last 25 weeks shows that the bird 2 groups behind the controls at 2.0%, fig-ures chickens 3 groups were similar control, and 4 and 5 groups exceeded its only 0.4 - 0 7%.
So, from the above data shows that after a peak performance at the age of 40 - 65 weeks, the most effective level of lysine in fodder will be 0.73 - 0.79%.
Analyzing other indicators of performance and cost of feed per unit can confirm conclusions made from the analysis of indicators of the intensity of egg production.
Thus, gross collection of eggs hens second group yielded control to 2.3%. In contrast bird 3, 4 and 5 groups prevailed control on this indicator, respectively 2.8; 2.6 and 3.6%.
With the average index of egg laying hen Group 2 inferior bird control at 3.3%. Productivity chickens 3 groups was similar controls, and 4 and 5 groups higher by 0.4 - 3.7%.
The cost of feed for the production of 10 eggs for the entire experiment, were 2,30 - 2,43 kg. The lowest were in chickens Group 5 - 2.5%, compared with the control. The cost of poultry feed, 3 and 4 groups were lower than control at 1.30%. The highest costs were in poultry feed 2 groups, control it ahead by 3.0%.
If we consider the cost of feed for egg production in the first and second phase of the egg we can note significant changes. Thus, in the first 13 weeks of egg production cost of feed for laying 10 eggs in Group 5 were lower than the control by 4.7% (p ˂0,05).
In the second phase of oviposition significant difference for feed consumption per unit of production were observed, but can be marked decrease in this index with increasing lysine content in feed.
Thus, analyzing the productivity and cost of feed in chickens can conclude that in the first 13 weeks of laying the most effective content of lysine in fodder - 0.81%. In the second phase of the egg by increasing the content of lysine in fodder from 0.73 to 0.79% was observed a positive trend in productivity but significant changes were likely because no further studies are needed to determine a more specific indicator.

Morphometrica ssessmentperch grown in reservoir of an tonov

Ishchenko M.O., Gnidenko V.M., Asafat I.V., Martsenyuk N.O., Martsenyuk V.P.

The perch is a valuable commercial fish, the object of acclimatization and breeding in fish farms. Is the largest industrial predatory fish of the Perch family. This species in water bodies of Ukraine is characterized by high growth rates, sufficient elasticity in the choice of food. He is one of the most valuable commercial fish species, therefore, traditionally enjoys high demand among consumers. Nutritional value of pike-perch is rather high – protein content exceeds 18%. In the meat of pike-perch contains all 20 amino acids, of which 8 - irreplaceable, but also contains large amounts of mineral substances.
Adult pike-perch plays an important ameliorative role consuming mostly low-value fish. On 1 kg of weight gain it consumes 3.3 kg of low-value fish. This is significantly less than required by pike and perch. Unlike pike, which lies in wait for its prey, pike-perch will actively seek out and pursue your prey. He hunts in the water, in the morning and in the evening before sunset. It is grown in different water bodies. The main condition for pike-perch growing is clean waters, as it is quite sensitive to the amount of oxygen in the water.
Research during 2013-2014 on the basis of "Hlynyankoff" and in Vinnytsia National Agrarian University. Material for research were biennial and perennial pike-perches. Physical analysis in autumn 2013 and spring 2014 was conducted.
Physical-chemical indicators of water quality and natural feed resources according to certain methods were conducted. In addition, comparative and statistical analysis of the total catch of fish in the experimental farm of the according to conventional methods was performed.
Quantitative and qualitative composition of the fish catch in the reservoir under research was studied. Observations about the pond and modern condition of fish fauna were studied. Pike perches autopsy on the following components performed : the carcass with fins, internal organs, head. Blood that stand out in the dissection, attributed to internal organs. The head was separated from the carcass by breaking off at the point of attachment of the occipital bone with the main body of the first vertebra, then cutted the gills. The relative weight of internal organs was determined by the ratio of the absolute weight of the organs before a slaughter weight of fish. In the second part of the experiment the carcass boiled for 15 minutes, then determined the ratio of edible and inedible parts of the total weight of fish (gonads and head to the edible part is not considered), namely the carcass in the form of boiled meat and inedible parts in the form of bones and fins. Substances which during the boiling passed in the solution did not take into account.

Role of raw materials of butter productionwith the combined composition of raw materials

Kitchenko L.M.

A General characteristic of the production of butter with a combined raw material composition and production methods of the product. The peculiarities of technological parameters of production of butter with partial replacement of milk fat. Characterized the factors that affect the consistence of butter, and the effect of flavors on the formation of flavor butter. Describes the influence of vegetable fats on the main organoleptic characteristics of the butter and the ways to address the shortcomings due to the adjustment depending on seasonal composition of milk fat.
The role of substitutes of milk fat in the formation of consistency, taste and smell of the butter was studied. When butter is produced by whipping the quality of the finished product depends on proper preparation of the vegetable and cream mixture, and physical ripening conditions (temperature and time). In the application of vegetable fats, the duration of physical maturation increases. Mass fraction of fat mixture is calculated based on the technical characteristics and condition of the equipment, the recommended mass fraction of fat mixture a method for the continuous churning - 38-42 %, for periodic - 28-35 %. The process of churning and processing of emulsions is being tested at specific conditions and regulated temperature and time of churning, processing the oil seeds. As a rule, the duration of churning butter with a complex lipid composition should increased.
When producing oil with the combined composition of the raw material by conversion, as with traditional production of butter, control the input temperature of the coolant and the temperature of the finished product with butter-converter during thermomechanical processing.
The question of the consistency and temperature stability of the combined butter is greatly simplified by the orientation of the fatty acid composition and properties of milk fats, with changes in milk fat production and modification of two compositions of non-milk fats, differentiated for spring-summer and autumn-winter periods. Therefore, it is necessary to use a special vegetable fats known manufacturers who have experience of using fat systems. As a rule, such systems contain a dye β-carotene, fat-soluble emulsifier, which helps to get the required product consistency regardless of the season, and also contain a combination of vegetable fats that are adapted to changes in milk fat for the season.

Cheese dairy finish milk cow of Sumy type ukrainian black - white milk sort

Levchenko I.V.

An assessment the quality of cheese produced from milk of cows Ukrainian Black-and-White dairy breed of different genotypes was conducted. The studies were performed in pedigree plant "First of May", Sumy district, Sumy region. In the experience picked up cows 3-5 lactations up to 15 heads in each group. Technological properties of milk, physico-chemical analysis of cheese was performed according to general accepted methods.
The milk of cows Ukrainian Black-and-White and Sumy type Black-and-White dairy breeds were poorer by dry matter content of 0.28 and 0.17%, respectively, than at animals of the North-Eastern milk type of brown breed. More fatty dairy cows were in North-Eastern milk type – 3,85%, cows of Sumy type had the fat content in milk – 3,71%, and the analogues of the Ukrainian Black-and-White dairy breed only 3,62%. Similar data we obtained and in determining the amount of protein in milk of various species. The lowest proportion of casein in the milk of cows of Ukrainian Black-and-White dairy breed 2.6 percent. The difference with cows Sumy type equaled 0.04% and the North-Eastern milk type of brown breed – 0,10%, but it is not statistically reliable.
In general, milk of experimental cows of all breeds meet the requirements of raw milk intended for cheese production. The cost of milk to produce 1 kg of finished product – cheese, between experimental groups, the difference is negligible and not reliable. The least for production of 1 kg hard cheese was spent of milk from cows North-Eastern milk type of brown breed (10.0 kg), and most -cows of Ukrainian Black-and-White dairy breed is 11.3 kg.
Cheeses from milk of the experimental cows were of good quality, had a fairly rich taste and aroma, delicate texture and beautiful pattern. Thus, the milk of experimental cows is suitable for production hard cheeses of high quality.
Cheeses from milk of the experimental cows were of good quality, had a fairly rich taste and aroma, delicate texture and beautiful pattern. Thus, the milk of experimental cows is suitable for the production hard cheeses of high quality.

Resource technologies in oil production

Kitchenko L.M.

Solutions to problems of increasing production in butter production and due to resource-saving technologies were presented. Features of common process steps in the production of butter with reduced fat content. The main types of low fat butter and ways to improve production lines for its production were described. The aim of this work was the study and the possibility of using resource-saving technologies in the production of butter. Of course, the classic kinds of butter as the universal destination, in the assortment of dairy enterprises must be stored and to serve as a benchmark for new develop and produce products with reduced fat content.
Production of butter in one of two ways - by converting high fat cream and whipping cream to the butter manufacturers of continuous operation. The peculiarity of this technology is non-traditional preparation of raw materials for butter production. When this fat component (milk fat, ghee or butter) is first melted in the range of moderate melting temperatures (40-60 °C) to avoid explicit taste of melted butter in the finished product is then mixed with the recovered plasma dairy, which is based on skimmed or whole milk, dry buttermilk, and if possible use natural milk plasma. The resulting mixture was subjected to dispersion in a specially designed apparatus-the dispersants. To obtain a more stable dispersion of the fat in the milk plasma technical documentation provided by the use of emulsifiers. Received milk-fat dispersion is subjected to high temperature pasteurization in apparatuses of different design and its subsequent treatment is carried out in accordance with the scheme of technological process of production of the peasant butter.
When properly conducted the process recombine butter consumer characteristics practically does not differ from the peasant butter.
One of the promising directions of development assortment butter is to restore the production of sour butter. And in recent years in to it industry clearly demonstrate the interest. And when the question for problem of obtaining sour butter with a more distinct flavor is posed, with a good plasticity during the changed composition corresponding to the requirements of a healthy diet, that is has a high biological value due to low calorie product. Distinctive sweet and butter taste bouquet predetermined used bacterial starter cultures, methods, and modes of production. With this in mind, the composition of starter cultures need to present the microorganism - active acid - flavor creators that grow well in cream of different fat content, and technological modes of manufacture of butter to ensure maximum flavor accumulation of aromatic substances in the finished product.
The production technology of cream pastes also takes into account issues of substitutability of raw milk fat (cream, high fat cream, butter, butter cheese). This approach makes it easy to learn at diversified enterprises of the dairy industry, resulting in more cost-effective in comparison with butter product. The underlying technology of butter low fat, butter and cream pastes can serve as a basis for the further development of new technologies of these products with specified composition and properties for special purpose and food of various population groups. Undoubtedly, in the development of new technologies, the manufacturer always bears the additional costs associated with the acquisition of any equipment, organization of production and advertising of the finished product. However, these costs are quickly recouped due to the significant cost reduction of new types of butter (20-25 %) compared to the traditional.
Taking into account the modern conditions of economic development associated with a lack of raw milk and high production cost of traditional types of butter, many businesses are already embracing innovative resource-saving technologies of butter and low fat products with reduced fat content, which allows them not only to survive but also to take a worthy place in the market. With the right attitude such products in the future, they will occupy an important place in the consumption basket. The wide development of production by domestic enterprises will allow to provide the population of Ukraine butter fatty products according to the norms of consumption, minimizing the share of their imports.

Reprodused ability of stallions and mares of novooleksandrovsky breed

Lutih S.

Economic and plant-breedings successes of subjects of pedigree business in novoaleksan-drovsky breeding is straight related to the recreation. From data of accountings reports and by in-formation of primary zootechnic account majority a sapling will be realized under age 1,5 year, that conditioned by absence of charges on their subsequent maintenance and growing. Therefore than anymore in an owner-stvi annually turns out foals, realized the more so (in a calculation on 100 mares).
Analogical dependence is observed at the decision of plant-breedings questions: than the best recreation, the wider possibility for a selection high-quality a sapling in a repair game-pu. Con-sequently control after the level of output of foals does not lose the actuality in the last few years.
From data of state pedigree register for last period of time (beginning from the moment of approbation of novoaleksandrovsky breed in 1998 year) situation in Ukrainian breeding horses changes constantly, - the amount of subjects of breeding business diminishes, and plenty of pedigree horse passed to the private sector which is not instrumental in the conduct of the proper account and scale plant-breeding-pedigree works with this population.
Therefore the purpose of researches is a study of indexes of fecundity of stallions and mares of novoaleksandrovsky breeds, which are contained in pedigree factories and loud-speakers of Ukraine, comparison of them, with those, which were for period of development of breed and ex-posure of factors which brake the increase of level of recreation.
Material of researches was become by all population of horse of pedigree kernel of breed – 17 stallions and 143 mares which are contained in pedigree enterprises. Fecundity of houses was studied on the method generally accepted in breeding horses with determination of followings dates: amount of fruit years and breeding seasons (for stallions), amount of mares which were preg-nant, abortions and seek foals, living foals are got.
The indexes of fecundity are expected in the cut of subjects of pedigree business and in the cut of existent genealogical lines. The retrospective analysis of general is conducted the indexes of fecundity are taken into account after 17-years-old period of time (1998-2014 years).
The analysis of results of researches proved that reorganization agrarian a sector, unfavoura-ble economic terms resulted in the fall-off of indexes of recreation in domestic heavy draft breeding horses for the last 6 years. In 2014 years an output of foals on 100 uteruses was 56,2, that is the critical index of industry.
Testifies the results of analysis of the pedigree use of novoaleksandrovsky stallions to low efficiency of plant-breeding processes (had general loading' (5,0), insufficient intensity of the use of the best in a breed stallions).
Fruit activity of uteruses of novoaleksandrovsky breed in the cut of subjects of pedigree business (and also after linear belonging) characterized low indexes of getting foals and normal pregnancy, that is economic ineffective and brakes development of industry of heavy draft breeding horses.

Characteristics of the studiedfeed additives with addition of palm fat and their influence to the productivity of laying hens

Orischuk O.S., Tsap S.V.

The aim of this work was to examine the chemical and fatty acid composition of the studied feed additives on the basis of dry palm fat and its influence on the productivity of laying hens of the cross “Highsex brown”. Scientific and economic experiment in the conditions of private production company "Agrocentr" Dnipropetrovsk region was conducted. For the experiment four groups of laying hens with 50 animals each were selected, formed on the principle of counterparts, taking into account the age, live weight and productivity.
The productivity of experienced birds during the period of experiment was in the control group – 3921 eggs, and research: II – 4306; III 4069; IV – 4126. Therefore, for the entire period of scientific and economic experience of egg laying hens of the experimental groups against the control group increased: in group II – by 9.8 %, III – 3.8 %, in IV – 5.2 % and from they had received of eggs per hen housed 7.7 PS; 3,0; 4,1 PCs compared with the control.
As a result of scientific studies have shown that the use of compound feeds in the studied feed additives with the introduction of the palm fat has improved the productivity of laying hens by 3.8-to 9.8 %. It is established that the content of crude protein and crude fat ranged from 28-31 %, from 4.6 to 45.3 %, respectively. Among fatty acids, the highest level in feed additives mentioned palmitic acid and accounted for 62 to 71 %.

Hematological parameters of tribal boars manufacturers After processing of biologically active preparations

Poruchnik M. N.

Hanging the efficiency of pig industry and its profitability and its profitability largely depends on the organization of herd's reproduction and intensive use of sows and boars manufacturers. It should be mentioned that the implementation possibilities of reproductive ability of sows fully depend on fertility, sperm quality and sexual activity of boars. Therefore, studies of reproductive ability, quantitative and qualitative indicators of sperm of breeding boars are very important.
The Improvement of selection progress in the pig breeding, precocity, stress resistance and qualities of pork need the comprehensive approach. Hematologic study gives the opportunity to learn more about pig's physiology and on the basis of it their productivity, resistance and longevity they can be estimate.
Experience in industrial technology shows that to improve the fertility of sows in the complex zoo technical, technological, preventive and medical treatments are widely used in the methods of stimulation sexual function of boars and improve their sperm’s quality using hormonal, biologically active and medicinal products. Stimulants are among the powerful, but still underutilized reserves of increase animal's productivity.
Scientists say, thatproductive quality of animals come from physiological, biological processes which take place in a living organism. Normal functioning of all organs is provided by physicochemical of the internal environment. Blood has a relatively stable structure but in the same time it is a labile system, in which changes affected the metabolic processes.
A number of scientists argue that the need for the study of blood is primarily determined by its physiological role, and the changes coming in the blood in various pathological conditions. The blood is closely interrelated with all organs. Together with the endocrine and nervous system, it causes the unity and integrity of the body, providing its homeostasis. The study of hematological parameters allows a more detailed assessments of productive qualities of pigs. The blood maintains the relative constancy of its composition than that ensures homeostasis, which is necessary for normal functioning of cells and tissues. Maintaining the constancy of its composition, the blood is sufficiently labile system, that quickly responds to pathogenic changes in the organism.
In Ukraine conducted a significant number of studies on hematological indices of pigs but the influence of biologically active drugs on morphological and biochemical factors of breeding boars and their reproduction haven't been enough revealed in scientific studies.
Therefore, the aim has been tasked to study the influence of biologically active drugs and explore the morphological and biochemical parameters of blood breeding boars.
This experiment was carried out under the conditions by agricultural company " Mig -Service- Agro" from Mykolaiv region. Blood samples have taken from breeding boars by the method of analogues. For the General analysis of blood and biochemical studies have used venous blood. There was formed the control group of 8 anima, the first experimental group of 4 animal and the second experimental group of 4 animal. The drugs such as Katozal, Tetravit and ASD-2F were used on the first experimental group and the Foz-Bovit, Tetravit and ASD-2F were used intramuscular on the second experimental group.
Hematological studies were conducted in a centralized multidisciplinary diagnostic laboratory city hospital №1 in Nikolaev.
For clinical blood assessments were used hematological automatic analyzer - BC-300plus; to analyze «Elecses Testosterone" automatic analyzers Eleksis 1010 and 2010 the company "Hoffmann-La Roche"; indicators creatine phosphokinase and cholesterol on the analyzer Vitalab; analysis of the dynamics of total protein was carried out by using the reagent LiquickCor-Total Protein; to identify the protein fractions the buffer was used for distillation - veronal acetate buffer and amido-red.
Analyzing morphological and biochemical parameters of blood of breeding boars the similar tendency between the control group and the experimental group was observed. However, the task group which was administered by drugs such as Katozal, Tetravit and ASD-2F is better than control group on 20,4 g/l, when Р> 0,95. Also, this group has the greatest number of platelets - 217,7 109/l. The analysis of total protein content and its fractions in blood shows that their value was within the physiological norm. By most indicators the control group dominates over the research group. This household isconvenient for breeding boars in all hematological indicators. For most indicators of blood’s leucogram the control group prevails over the research group. Breeding boars in this household are in good physiological condition by hematological indicators.
In further research, we plan to study the influence of biologically active drugs on the fertilizing ability of sperm from boars after artificial insemination of breeding pig by sperm and we plan to determine their level of reproductive ability in the farmstead.

Estimation to fitness of alcoholic test for determination of heat-resistance of goat's milk

Ryzhkova T.N., Severin G.V., Livoschenko I. M., Geyda I. M., Leppa A. L.

Thermostability is an important technological property of milk that determines its ability to retain high temperature thermal processing. Due to possible coagulation of milk proteins under the action of high temperatures. The resistance of milk procurement must be strictly controlled, especially in the production of sterilized milk, canned milk, baby food. Thermostability of milk was evaluated using a sample of alcohol by mixing milk and alcohol solution in water with a volume fraction of ethyl alcohol 68, 70, 72, 75 and 80% (respectively, V, IV, III, II and i teams heat resistance). If milk protein is unstable during contact with the alcoholic solution of the milk will curdle.
According to the results of the comparative evaluation of samples of cow's and goat's milk to determine their heat resistance, produced from animals (cows and goats), which are contained in "Training and research center of livestock and crop production" of Kharkiv State Zooveterinary Academy, it was determined that the alcohol in the sample of goat's milk does not provide information about its thermal stability. For this purpose the sample is suitable for boiling.

Fatty acid and vitamin composition of liver of young geese with the use of sunflower and soya lecitin

Ruban N., Mikityuk V.

The study was on daily goslings heavy breed Danish legarth. The selection of young geese for scientific and economic experience held by the method of pairs − analogues. Starting with a daily age, the control group of geese received during the trial period (60 days) complete feed made in the conditions of private enterprise "Orbita", II received the feed with a content of 0.4 % sunflower lecithin, III, IV and V groups received complete feed with the addition of different doses of soy lecithin according to the scheme of experience. At the end of the experiment control slaughter of geese by three heads from each group was performed. During the slaughtering of poultry was selected biological material for research content in the liver of fatty acids and vitamins.
Research for adding in feed geese biologically active additives, which contain in their composition of phospholipids resulted in improved deposition in the liver of experimental groups of geese fat-soluble vitamins A and E. The geese of experimental groups showed a predominance in the number of vitamin A 24.9% and 7.5 %, 11.1% and 13.5% compared with the counterparts in the control group. The concentration in the liver of vitamin E also tended to increase in experimental group respectively 12.5% in the II control group, and 0.5 %, and 5.7% and 7.3 % respectively in III, IV and V experimental groups.
Therefore, characteristics of the vitamin composition of the liver shows a high ratio of young birds fat-soluble vitamins when included in the main forage mixture of phospholipids, which are part of the sunflower and soy lecithin.
The enrichment of diets of young geese sunflower lecithin increases the level of these vitamins, which significantly affect the biosynthesis of fatty acids in liver tissues of young geese. Studies for the introduction in the feed of young geese sunflower lecithin and different amounts of soy did not lead to significant differences in fatty acid composition of liver tissue in the context of experimental groups. However, their advantage relative to the control group, which was beyond probability should noted .
The ratio of experimental fatty acids in the liver are presented in figure 2. Analysis of fatty acid composition of the liver of geese showed that the inclusion in the diet of sunflower lecithin contributed to the increase in the liver tissue saturated palmitic acid and unsaturated linoleic and arachidonic acids, the observed reduction of the content unsaturated oleic acid.
Thus, compared with the control group II experimental group that used sunflower lecithin, prevailed over the content of palmitic acid of 2.3 % and the advantage on this indicator, III, IV and V experimental groups that consumed soy lecithin was in the range of 0,3 % -0,9 %.
In the experimental group, where the bird received additionally sunflower lecithin, was an increase of linoleic acid by 0.8 % compared with the control. A similar trend was observed in the III, IV and V experimental groups receiving more soy lecithin. So the difference in content of linoleic acid in the liver of the geese of these groups was 1.3 %, 1.6% and 1.9%, respectively to the control. In addition, it should be noted a slight increase of arachidonic acid by 0.8 % in the second experimental group, while the figure in III, IV and V experimental groups in comparison with the control was almost at the same level.
In the liver of the geese experimental groups that consumed soy lecithin, compared with the control increased the content of mono-unsaturated oleic acid 0.8% in the III and V groups and 0.9% in group IV, whereas in the II experimental group for the use of sunflower lecithin was determined to be the lowest number. In our opinion this is due to the decrease in the amount of polyunsaturated acids linoleic and arachidonic in general, the ratio of the studied fatty acids.
Therefore, in the diets of young geese sunflower lecithin in the amount of 0.4 % enabled better absorption of fat-soluble vitamins. Advantage over the control group on the content of vitamin A in the liver was 24.9 %, and vitamin E is 12.5 %, while the inclusion of soy – 7.5 to 13.5 % and 0.5-7.3 percent respectively.
On fatty acid composition, differences were observed in the context of the experimental groups were not significant and were beyond probability. However, the tendency to enrichment of liver tissue fatty acids should be noted in the young geese of the experimental groups.

Evaluation of quantitative and qualitative indicators sausages produced in different ways mincing

Strikha L.O.

The results of studies of qualitative and quantitative indicators cooked sausages produced in different ways: the traditional technology with all the transactions and modes of innovation and cutters using special perforated blades.
Established that the higher yield of finished products were characterized boiled sausages made using innovative technology, they had less weight loss during heat treatment and better organoleptic properties.
It was established that the production of sausages cooked sausages weight after heat treatment was 142,6-149,2 kg. Yield at the first and second methods made under 109,7 and 114,8%. The research found that the type of applied knives affects the output of finished products. Loss of heat treatment at the first and second methods were 9,9% and 11,6%, respectively, corresponding to the standard indicators. In terms of a finished product had the highest value sausages, made the second method. The difference was at 5,1% (P>0,95).
Out of sausages to heat treatment at the second method was 165,7±0,51%.
The loss of weight after thermal treatment sausages produced in the second method were 9,9±0,29%. Sausages made the first version were characterized by higher mass loss – 11,6±0,33%.
It was established that the mass loaves after heat treatment at the first method mincing 146,2 when using the second method – 149,2 kg.
It is proved that the mass loss of sausages in different ways making for one day of storage were higher in cooked sausages, made the second method. The advantage was 0,1 kg (P>0,95). After three days of storage sausages manifested a similar trend, the mass of cooked sausages was higher in sausages produced the second method, the difference was 0,2 kg (P>0,95). After 72 hours of storage overall mass loss cooked sausages were respectively 0,5 kg and 0, 3kg in the first and second modes of production
For better organoleptic stats characterized boiled sausage, made in the second method сutters using special perforated blades. The total score of organoleptic evaluation was 4,7±0,12 points. The difference was 1,4 points respectively (with P>0,99) compared with cooked sausage, stuffing are made in the cutters using perforated knives.
Cooked sausages made first method characterized by slightly heterogeneous structure and presence of porosity. Bal their appearance was 4,9.

Evaluation indicators boiled-smoked sausages at different heat treatment methods

Strikha L.O, Muzyka M.V.

The results of physico-chemical and organoleptic characteristics of boiled-smoked sausages made in various ways: traditional and innovation, with the addition of liquid and solid Smoking substances.It was es-tablished that active acidity of sausage mince was 5,36 pH units in the first method and 5,24 pH units in the second methos.The lowest rate was in the moisture content of sausages in the first method and amounted to 39,7%. The difference compared with sausages, made the second method was 0,2% (P>0,95).The protein content in sausages meet regulatory and fluctuated within 17,5-17,1%. Sausages that were made by various technologies were characterized by normative values of sodium nitrite content and fat content.
According to the organoleptic characteristics the best sausages were those that have been made by the second method. The total score of organoleptic evaluation was 7,3±0,07 points. The difference was 0,4 points (P>0,95) if to compare with sausages made the first method.
Determined that the best look had sausages made by the second method. On the cut these sauseges didn't have porosity, mince evenly mixed, bacon bits evenly distributed and the color was red without spots.The highest score in terms of color on cut had the sausages in the second method 6,6±0,16 points. The advantage over the products made by second method was 0,4 points (P>0,95).
According to these indications the best sausages were in the second method of manufacture. Average score for the smell and taste of them respectively was 7,5±0,23 and 7,2±0,07 points. The highest score in terms of texture and juiciness got sausages in the second mode.
Method of administrationsmokingsubstancesaffect thephysical, chemical andorganoleptic properties ofsausages.The bestorganoleptic propertieswere morewhen spraying smokeliquidsloavessausages.It is proved thatsmokingmethodshave different effectson the activeaciditymince, add smokesubstancesreducepH.A higherorganoleptic evaluationcharacterizedboiled-smokedsausages"Cervelat" producedthe first method.
In further researches will be determined the influence of intensive technology on the quality of smoked sausages during storage.

Morphological composition of carcasses of bulls of the Ukrainian beef breed

 Ugnivenko А.M.

The main difficulties with the body valuation consists in determining the output of tissue and cuts. In order to get a clear picture on meat productivity, it is necessary to know the patterns of relative growth.
Materials for the study were data on meat productivity of Ukrainian gobies breeding at the plant "Volia" in Cherkasy region. From the very birth to the moment of weaning they were with female mothers. In 8 months they were put to the test on their own performance, which lasted till the age of 23 months.
With the age a weight of carcasses of animals increasing, and it changes the ratio of different tissues (muscle, adipose, bone and connective). Along with the increase of the total weight one can observe a change in the rate of growth of muscle tissue. The content of muscle tissue of a premium grade tends to increase with the age, connective - to decrease.
At the age of 23 months an output of muscle tissue in meat of a premium grade significantly increased, and the second - decreased accordingly.
The biggest change in the growth shows an adipose tissue, and an increase of its content in the fish body causes proportional increase its content in other fat depots. A value of the bones of the gobies half-body depends on age and ranges from 16.9 to 17.6%. With age, this rate decreases.
A value of a meat tissue (was determined by the ratio of the mass of muscle and adipose tissue to the bones) is in the range of 4.4 to 4.7. Its value depends on the age of animals and tends to increase. Features of the change in the value of muscle tissue were not found. At the age of 21 months the animals muscle tissue value is slightly higher.
With age animals differ in their development of muscles, which is determined through the muscle-bone ratio. A ratio of animals muscle tissue with the age tends to increase (a muscle tissue is growing faster than a bone one).

Influence of organic microelements complex Bioplex® on Holstein cows performance

Havturіna A., Bomkо V.

The results of studying the effectiveness of the use of organic trace minerals foreign production Bioplex® MP, Cu, and Zn on milk production of Holstein cows. The research in LLC "Agrofirma Gorky", Dnipropetrovsk region in a breeding farm for the breeding of animals of Holstein breed were conducted. Length of equalisation period of the experiment was 20 days main period of scientific and economic experience was 170 days.
Indicators milk production of Holstein cows research groups, depending on replacing MnSO4 for Bioplex® Manganese, Bioplex or СиЅО4 on ®Cuprum, or ZnSO4on Bioplex®Zinc, or simultaneous replacement of all sulfate salts of Manganese, Cuprum, Cinchona Bioplex® Manganese, Cuprum, Zinkov feed, which they consumed, were significantly different from the indices of milk productivity of cows of the control group. Average daily milk yield of natural milk fat content in cows of the 2nd experimental group, where was replaced by MnSO4 at Bioplex® Manganese exceeded the control 7.27 %, in cows of the 3rd where replaced СиЅО4 on Bioplex® Kurumunu of 4.77%, in cows the 4th where ZnSO4 was replaced on Bioplex® Zinc in 10,53% in cows and 5-th groups where replaced at the same time MnSO4, CuSO4, ZnSO4 on Bioplex® Manganese, Cuprum, Cinchona -15,29 %.
As a result of the conducted researches it is established that the use of the premix in the compound feed with foreign trace elements organic forms Bioplex® MP, Cu, and Zn, which in General had a positive impact on increasing milk production. However, the most effective was the use of the complex trace elements organic forms Bioplex® MP, Cu, and Zn for the inclusion of which was marked the highest increase in milk 4 % fat content, which is 23,47 % (p ≤ 0.001) more control.

The influence of micro-elements onto biochemical profile of blood and the biological value of cows' milk

Khomyn M. M., Fedoruk R. S., Khrabko M. I., Oleksiuk N. P.

Chrome, Selene, Cobal tand Zinc, which have the influence on to the physiological and biochemical processesin the body of animal, were used during the mineral balancing of cows'diets. It is wel lknown that taking of micro-elements depends on chemical compounds. That is why we have use do rganic compounds Cr, Se, Co and Zn which were made with the help of nano technology.
The experiment was held with the use of 15 full-aged cows of Ukrainian Black-and-White dairy breed, the analogies with the age, productivity, body weight and the lactation period. The cows were divided into 3 groups. The cows from 2-nd group were fed with mineral additive of chromium, selenium, cobalt and zinc citrates (30 mkgCr, 25 mkgSe, 20 mkg Со and mg Zn of kg of fodder dry matter), the cows from 3-rd with mineral additive of chromium, selenium, cobalt and zinc citrates (30 mkg Cr, 25 mkg Se, 100 mkg Со and 10 mg Zn of kg of fodder dry matter).
Once during the preparation period and on 30-th and 60-th days of using the mineral additive, the rewere taken the blood sample sand monitored the milk productivity to know the day milk yield and its chemical composition.
It was established that 2-nd group of cows showed the increase of detoxication processes in the body and daily average milk yield also increased up to 6,6 % after adding to the diet the citrate additive.
The animals in the 3-rd group, after 2 months of mineral additive adding, had the increasing detoxication processes in their bodies by formation of phenolsulfates and phenolglucuronides, promotes increasing of Calciumin 4,1 % and in organic phosphorus in 6,4 % in the blood, and tendency to increasing in milk ofvitamins А to 17,3 % (р<0,05), Calcium — to 4,6 (р<0,05) and in organic phosphorus — to 8,3 % (р<0,05). The milk fat increased to 0,07 and 0,20 % (absolute) after the 1-st and 2-nd months of the mineral additive usage, and daily average milk yield increased to 3,3 and 7,8 % respectively.

Influence of weather conditions on the productivity of cows in the warm season

Shablia V.P., Osipenko T.L., Admina N.G., Panchenko O.M., Kovtun S.B.

The results of influence of weather conditions on milk production of the cows in the warm season were studied. The mechanisms and regularities of this influence were clarified. It was revealed that during the warm period of the year the most problematic in terms of microclimate in the area of residence of animals are periods of heat. Prolonged increase of average daily temperature above 30 C affects particularly negatively on milk production. It leads to a decrease of average daily milk yield at 1.5 - 2.2 kg. It was established that in the warm season average daily milk yield of cows, provided with sheds on backyard at the rate of 3.24 m2 / head, significantly exceeds of milk yield of cows provided with sheds 0.54 m2 / head (at 2.1 kg).

Dynamic parameters OF spermatozoa with USE of choline chloride in the composition of bull semen cryop reservation extender

Yaremchuk I.M.

The possibility of long-term sperm storage of serving bulls by the method of deep freeze is the promising direction in cattle breeding to organize stock breeding in artificial insemination. The efficiency of usage of cold-stored sperm greatly depends on the constitution of synthetic medium, whose task is to defend spermatozoa from surrounding threats. The study of necessity to keep spermatozoa in the medium that encourages recovery of possible cryopreservation minding physical-chemical factors as the results of deep freeze is the methodic feature of these researches.
The research studies were held to find out the practicability of choline-chloride injection into cryopreservation constitution. As far as the presence of methyl groups in the molecule of that substance causes its hydrophobic cooperation with biomacromolecules and there is obvious necessity of non-autonomous realization of cryoprotective choline features, but to increase the efficiency of traditional cryoprotectors. The specification of spermatozoa mobility and survival ability during the hatching period was the first stage of research. The results of researches showed the impact of biological active substances in the constitution of diluter onto the morphological and dynamical sperm indices of bulls.
The study results of the dynamic parameters of spermatozoa under the influence of different choline chloride concentration in the composition of the bull semen freezing extenders have been shown. Kinematic parameters of undiluted bull semen were obtained by using of computerized system CASA (Computer Automated Sperm Analysis) - Sperm Vision. Revealed, that the highest kinematic indices and progressive motility of bull spermatozoa were by using choline chloride at concentration of 1.5 %. Straightness spermatozoa (STR) was greater in samples with high rectilinear translational movement. The rectilinear motion speed of the sperm cell head along the straight segment between the start and end points of the trajectory(VSL) increased by 10.2 % with addition of 1.5 % choline chloride to the modified extender comparing to control.

Stimulation of natural food base when rearing carp larvae

Moskalenko N., Grygorenko T., Bazaeva A., Mykhaylenko N.

The article contains results of the application of the microfertilizer “Rostok” Macro for fertilizing fry ponds during rearing of carp larvae. The effect of the microfertilizer on hydrochemical regime, development of natural food base, survival of fish larvae and fish productivity of fry ponds have been investigated. It was found that three-time application of “Rostok” Macro in fry ponds during rearing of carp larvae contributed to an increase of the biogenic element content and, in particular, phosphorus in pond water, and stimulated the development of forage aquatic organisms. Provision of carp larvae with sufficient amounts of available natural feeds at early stages of their development contributed to high growth rate, development and survival of carp larvae in the experimental pond compared to the control. Average weight of viable larvae after 30 days of rearing in the experimental group was 1.32±0.06 g, in the control – 0.90±0.04 g, the survival rate was 63.0% and 55.0%, respectively. Fish productivity in the experiment was 1.7 times higher and was 831 kg/ha versus 495 kg/ha in the control.
As a result of the research, the hydrochemical regime in the application of microfertilizer "Rostok" Macro during larval rearing of common carp was within the aquaculture regulations. Three-time inclusion in fry ponds microfertilizer "Rostok" Macro in the amount of 4 dm3/ha in the period of larval rearing of common carp contributed to the development of adequate natural forage base and provide a higher (1.15 times) the survival rates of larvae of common carp compared with the control.

Monitoring levels ofsomatic cells in milkas a tool thatimproves its quality

Rusko N.

The object of the study was the contamination of the milk somatic cells of cows enterprise "Rzhavchik", Kharkiv region. The new system of monitoring the quality of milk involves not only the monitoring, the systematic collection and processing of obtained information on the quality of raw milk, but includes analysis and identification of events requiring corrective action, its development, defines tools feedback aimed at improving the quality of raw milk and improving economic indicators.
The research in 2009-2010 showed that the average milk cows on the mass fraction of fat, protein and true protein was higher than baseline, adopted in Ukraine, and the level of dry solids in the milk received were related to class "Extra", but due to the very high level of somatic cells in milk – raw milk was not graded. Since January 2011, at the farm system of monitoring of a number of the SC was introduced, according to the programme. The main purpose of the program was long-term systematic monitoring contamination of milk somatic cells, are made on the certificated equipment with use of modern highly effective methods of assessment that ensure accuracy and reliability of the results. The program has set the study parameters milk quality, methods of selecting representative samples, methods of their conservation, logistics of transporting samples to the laboratory information centre. Analysis of preliminary data revealed the need to develop a corrective action plan that includes elements of organizational-economic and veterinary-medical activities.
The introduction monitoring of milk quality, including corrective organizational and medical preventive sanitary-veterinary actions, reduced by 2.3-2.4 times the level of somatic cells in the milk, to obtain high quality raw milk and improve milk yield per 763-839 kg/head at 305 days of lactation.

Reproductive internalss of sheep of taurian type of askanian of fine-fleece breed depending on an origin

Nezhlykchenko N.V.

Purpose – the need to determine the effectiveness of breeding lines and the existence of differences in productivity level between animals of different lines and the influence origin of sheep in their reproductive qualities. The studies were performed in pedigree plant "Red shepherd" Kalanchak district, Kherson region. In the basis of breeding methods was used breeding sheep by lines and line groups created by origin rams from different breeding herds of Australia. The reproductive quality of ewes and productivity of ewes depending on their age use was studied. For this defined indicators of the output of the lambs, the coefficients of the reproductive capacity of sheep 1-8 lambings and the number of living descendants until weaning per ewe of different ages. Were studied indicators of "output lambs to 100 ewes" and their "safety. On each line put on the record 40 heads of ewes.
According to the data obtained the dynamics of live weight of ewe-lambs (units, twins) up to 12 months of age determined that the age variation of this ratio according to the logistic curve, that shape of the curve of development of the body of lambs not depend on the number in the litter and naturally passes, according to S-functions. But lambs from ewes they carry substantial physiological stress, which affects the intensity of their growth. In this case the dominant should be considered paratypic factors, such as the unpreparedness of the digestive system for independent use by lambs forage, climatic and hygienic conditions in the period weaning of the lambs (summer months) and the existence of a valuable forage and feed quality.
The resulting materials indicate that lambs-alone have a greater live weight in comparison with lambs-twins throughout the period of research. Lambs-alone of all lines are identical regularity, to weaning from ewes on live weight they were somewhat superior to lambs-twins, but in the following months (up to 12 months of age) there is a decrease in growth intensity in comparison with lambs-twins. For linear groups of Taurian type average daily liveweight gain of lambs-alone for the period from birth to weaning ranged 144,2 - 168,3 g, low values of this index belonged to the lines 8.31 and 1444 (144,2 g), the maximum – lines 100 and 2.29 (respectively 165,0 168,3 and g), indicating the inheritance of Taurian lambs type this regularity from parent pairs.
The established differences are mainly due to genetic potential of ewes in each study line, which once again confirms the hereditary conditionality of signs on reproductive qualities.