Origin of late-ripening and very late-ripening interspecific hybrids of potatoes and their backcrosses

A. A. Podhaietskyi, N. V. Kravchenko, L. V. Krjuchko

It is proved that modal distribution classes interspecific hybrids, their backcrosses for middle-maturity were in 2012 and 2013 and the medium late in 2014. Because the largest number of hybrids in late 2014, the relative proportion of samples with the same display signs for three years it was the lowest. Even less it was very late hybrids.
The results of the analysis of the origin of late and very late interspecific hybrids of potato, backcrosses them. The frequency of the individual components of mating hybrids indicates the effective genetic control of these traits. Among the examples of late it concerned population 91.764, in which two progenys for three years assigned to said group maturity and two seedlings of one population – 90.673 (s30 and s75). Over the two-year data at intermediate stages of crossing four times repetition backcross 83.47s65. For two-, three-year data five times in the last stage mating combinations found six species hybrids 81,386, 81,397 and 81,433. Significantly lower frequency components crossing interspecific hybrids detected very late among samples.
Among the material with the same expression of late maturity over three years is often present in the origin three specses hybrids - 57%. Over the two-year data is concerned six species hybrids with frequency 69%.

Formation of the ear number of main ear in the f1 of soft winter wheat

O. M. Bakumenko

The aim of research is to study the inheritance of number ears of the main ear by winter bred wheat hybrid of the first generation obtained by crossing cultivars that are carriers of wheat-rye translocations.
Research on F1 was carried out in 2013-2014 on experimental field of Sumy National Agrarian University, part of the north-eastern Forest Steppe of Ukraine. The climate of the area is continental. The average day and night (average annual) temperature in the growing 2013/2014 year was 9,5 ºC that is 2,1ºC higher the long-term rate (7,4ºC). The absolute maximum of the temperature (34ºC above zero) marked during the second decade of August, the minimum of temperature (26ºC below zero) during the third decade of January. The amount of rainfall was 552,6 mm, that is 40,4 mm less of many years norm (593mm).
30 hybrid combinations, created as a result of complete circuit diallel crossing scheme (6x6) of winter bread wheat have been taken as the material for research. The wheat cultivars of different genetic origin (Myronivs’ka rann’ostygla, Epoha odes’ka, Rozkishna) and cultivars – carriers of wheat-rye translocation (1AL/1RS – Smuglyanka, 1BL/1RS – Kryzhynka and Remeslivna) have been used as crossing components. Hybrid seeds were sown by hand, in a 3-fold repetition according to the scheme: the maternal parent, hybrid, staminate parent. Phenological observations were carried out during the vegetation, at their complete ripeness – structural analysis of sheaves. Based on the data of obtained results the heterosis level and phenotypic dominance degree were determined in the first generation hybrids.
Manifestation of true heterosis and overdominance according to the number ears of the main ear is observed in most combinations in which parent forms contain 1BL/1RS or 1AL / 1RS translocation in their genotype. When studying the nature of phenotypic inheritance of the number ears of the main ear it was found out the from 30 hybrid combinations overdominance appeared in 11 (37 %), partial positive dominance in 1 (3 %), intermediate inheritance in 10 (33 %), partial negative inheritance in 6 (20 %), depression in 2 (7 %). According to the results of analysis the best hybrid combinations as for the «the number ears of the main ear»: with the 1BL/1RS – Remeslivna / Myronivs'ka rann'ostygla and reciprocal – Kryzhynka / Rozkishna; with the 1АL/1RS – reciprocal – Rozkishna / Smuglyanka; with both of translocations – reciprocal – Kryzhynka / Smuglyanka, Kryzhynka / Remeslivna; without translocations – reciprocal – Myronivs'ka rann'ostygla / Rozkishna. The combination of the parent forms, which are carriers of wheat-rye translocation effects positively on the formation of the number ears of main ear and foreknows successful work as for creation of new patterns that become carriers of wheat-rye translocations.

Resistance of the winter wheat first generation hybrids to brown rust under the conditions of north-east Forest Steppe regions

 O. M. Osmachko

The aim of research is to study the inheritance of brown rust resistance by winter bred wheat hybrid of the first generation obtained by crossing cultivars that are carriers of wheat-rye translocations.
The researches were being conducted during 2013-2014 on the research field of Sumy National Agrarian University. Buckwheat was a precursor. Hybridization was carried out by the scheme of reciprocal crossing according to generally accepted methods. Sowing F1 was made by hand in hybrid seedbed together with parental forms according to the scheme: ♀ – F1 – F1 (reciprocal combination) – ♂. Phenological observation, accounting and assessment, testing of resistance of hybrids to brown rust were conducted on the natural infectious background. Degree index of phenotype predominance of plant features in the first generation of hybrids was determined under the formula of B. Griffing; grouping of the findings was made according to the classification of G. Beil, R. Atkins. Mathematical data processing was conducted with the use of computer software Microsoft Excel 2003.
In 2013-2014 testing of F1 of soft winter wheat as for brown rust resistance was conducted. According to the results of hybrid analysis 28,6 % of hybrid combinations with high resistance (9-8 points) were revealed. 60,7 % of hybrids had resistance of 7-6 points to septoriosis agent. 10,7 % of hybrids were slightly sensitive.
On the basis of degree index of phenotype predominance it was revealed that among hybrid combinations 42,9 % showed overdominance, 3,6% – partial positive dominance, 32,1% – intermediate feature inheritance, 7,1 % – partial negative dominance, 14,3 % – depression.
Hybrid combinations with overdominance (hp = 1,3-11) reciprocal – Zolotokosa / Astet, Zolotokosa / Vilshana, Zolotokosa / Antonivka, Kryzhynka / Remeslivna, and direct – Kryzhynka / Rozkishna, and inverse – Poliska 90 / Vesnianka, Kalynova / Vesnianka, Vasylyna / Vesnianka.
The dominance of parental form (hp = 0,9) was found – Vesnianka / Poliska 90.
Reciprocal combinations – Zolotokosa / Doskonala, Zolotokosa / Tsarivna, Zolotokosa / Ovidii, and direct – Zolotokosa / Kosoch, Vesnianka / Kalynova, and inverse – Podolianka / Zolotokosa were characterized by intermediate inheritance (hp = from -0,5 to 0,5).
Partial negative inheritance (hp = -1) is characteristic for hybrid combinations – Zolotokosa / Kuialnyk, Vesnianka / Vasylyna.
Type of inheritance «depression» (hp = from -1,1 to -5,5) was found out in such hybrids as Zolotokosa / Podolianka, Kuialnyk / Zolotokosa, Kosoch / Zolotokosa, Rozkishna / Kryzhynka.
Heterosis was observed in 12 hybrid combinations; it was 42,9 % of the samples researched. Negative effect of heterosis was in 16 combinations (57,1%). The highest effect of heterosis – 20 % – was found out in the combination Poliska 90 / Vesnianka.

Adaptation of a cloned plant material of winter rye to the terms of ex vitro

I. S. Riabovol, L.O. Riabovol

For an accelerated reproduction of valuable genetic material and creation of an active collection of source selection forms it is nesessary to use effectively the biotechnological techniques, in particular, a micropropagation. The final stage of micropropagation is the adaptation of plants to the soil sterile field growing conditions. The adaptation process largely depends on the plant and the formation of engraftment of strong root systems on the intermediate substrate in phytotron.
The aim of our work was the selection of conditions for adaptation and establishment of cloned plant winter rye with intermediate adaptation process.
As a result of research the optimal substrate for adaptation and the formation of a strong root system of plant materials were found. On the substrate, which included the equal parts of soil, perlite and sand, 93,4% microclons with a culture in vitro developed intensively and formed new leaves.
The rooted clones with an intensively developed leaf apparatus is necessary to used for adaptation. Roots should not be long, but branched ones.
It was found that for the intensification of activity of rizogen substrate to irrigate the culture medium, consisting of growth regulators (auxins, gibberellins) that induce root formation in plants of winter rye is advisable.
The proposed technology will greatly enhance the effectiveness of adaptation of microcloning by increasing the viability and increase the multiplication factor of all genotypes entered into the culture.

Adaptive reactions of nematode-resistant potato varieties for different agricultural ecological conditions of yield forming and quality

N.S. Kozhushko, N.N. Sakhoshko

Efficiency of potato growing branch is significantly determined by variety resources, which are estimated by level of economically valuable culture signs in state variety testing practice. In 2010-2011 the State Register of Varieties of Ukraine was refilled with four new early nematode- resistant potato varieties of selection by Sumy National Agrarian University. Qualification expertise results showed advantage of variety growing in Polesye in comparison with Forest-steppe. Response peculiarities appeared in significant elongation of vegetation period duration of varieties (96.8 and 90.5 days), commercial yield improvement (23 and 21 t/ha), average tuber weight (69 and 61 g) and tasting assessment (7.7 and 7.3 grades). Statistic processing of experimental material confirmed interaction of varieties with growing conditions with development of plasticity, stability, adaptability by concrete ecogradient.
Specific variety reaction on favorable Polesye conditions was characterized by regression coefficient essentially more than one. The greatest response for growing conditions improvement was showed by the varieties Psel`s`ka and Selianska in vegetation period duration (Ri =1.12-1.06); Slobozhanka-2 (Ri = 1.54-1.40), Selianska (Ri = 1.11-1.25) in commercial yield and tuber marketability; Psel`s`ka and Selianska (Ri = 1.99 - 1.23) – early yield; Slobozhanka-2 and Selianska (Ri = 1.51-1.29); starch gathering from 1 ha of seeding; Pliushka (Ri =1.28) – weight of one medium tuber; Psel`s`ka and Slobozhanka-2 (Ri = 2.13-1.56) - tasting assessment.
Highlighted high-plastic forms will be used as a potential genetic resource of separate signs of source material creation for adaptive potato selection.

The effect of fertilizing and seeding rates on the yield of different varieties of buckwheat

V. I. Onychko, S. I. Berdin, O. M. Tkachenko

On average, during research years a higher yield level in Sumchanka buckwheat variety is obtained. It was marked an increase in the crop yield of buckwheat by applying fertilizes and by increasing of their quantity. Thus, for Sumchanka variety the fertilization at a dose N45P45K45 allowed to increase yield by 0,06-0,10 t/ha, while applying N75P75K75 - 0,09-0,20 t/ha for Slobozhanka variety increased yield accordingly by 0.01 -0.06 t/ha and 0,10-0,21 t/ha. It should note the efficiency increase of mineral fertilizing by increasing seeding rates from 2.5 to 3.5 mln/ha. The tendency to the yield payback growth of increasing doses of fertilizer by increasing seeding rates is marked. Regardless of the applied preconditions of fertilizing the seeding rate reduction from basic (3.5 million/ha of similar seeds) negatively affected the buckwheat yield. The biggest reaction to the change of this factor is observed in Slobozhanka variety. It is justified that if grain bulk in Sumchanka and Slobozhanka varieties is growing at increasing of fertilizer rate application and simultaneous increase of seeding rates. More aligned grain was formed by applying an increasing number of fertilizer and lower seeding rate. We identified varietal reaction to mass changing of 1000 grains: in Sumchanka variety while reducing seeding rates decrease in weight of 1000 grains is observed; in Slobozhanka variety vice versa, the reduction of seeding rates contributed to obtaining of more grain weight. The higher efficiency of fertilizer using on the mass of 1000 grains is observed at a seeding rate of 3 million/ha of similar seeds. The varietal reaction to the effect of fertilizing and cereal output is justified. Thus, in Sumchanka variety the increase of fertilizer applying contributed to the growth in cereal output by 0,1-2,6% in comparison with the control variant (without fertilizing);and in Slobozhanka variety we have not found this regularity. The maximum output of cereals was obtained on the variants with seeding rates 2.5 million/ha of similar seeds. Analysis of the economic efficiency of buckwheat varieties growing under different fertilizer doses showed that in order to use soil more efficiently and maintain a balance of soil nutrition it is appropriate to apply N45P45K45 dose of fertilizers. High doses of N75P75K75 fertilizer application though provides a supplementary crop, but is less effective considering the costs.

Features of productivity formation and grain quality of modern varieties of winter wheat

T. A. Onychko, N. G. Sobko

One of the main reserves of the production increase of winter wheat grain is the implementation of highly productive varieties in favorable for them soil and climatic conditions. For the total realization of peculiar yield variety and grain quality it is necessary to create growing conditions which would contribute its effective identity of genetic possibilities. The variety role is growing especially at a high level of intensification of other factors, in particular, plant protection products and fertilizers. Therefore, selection determination of winter wheat varieties adapted to the conditions of the North-Eastern Forest-Steppe of Ukraine is relevant for modern agricultural science and practice.
The researches were conducted in the grain-cultivator crop rotation in the fields of Sumy Institute of AP NAASU. As a research subject were taken 11 varieties of winter wheat which were selected by the leading research institutions in Ukraine. Weather conditions during the research years vary considerably both by the temperature conditions and by the number and time of rainfall; it helped to evaluate the research varieties more objectively.
According to the research results we have found that varieties of winter wheat Gordovyta, Doskonala, Rozkishna, Blahodarka Odessa and Zagrava Odessa are able, in spite of growing conditions, to form sufficient productive stems. According to the components of spikelet productivity, in average for the research years, such varieties as Zagrava Odessa, Gordovyta, Mission Odessa, Epoha Odessa and Dalnytska formed greater number of grains in the spikelet (37-39 pcs. /spikelet).
Higher grain yields, in average for the research years, were obtained on varieties Rozkishna (9.24 t/ha), Doskonala (8.92 t/ha) and Gordovyta (8.36 t/ha), that by 1,72-2,61 t/ha higher compared to standard variety Doskonala. Slightly lower yields were obtained on varieties Voloshkova (7.80 t/ha), Zagrava Odessa (7.78 t / ha) and Epoha Odessa (7.72 t/ha).
The majority of the research wheat varieties formed the grain group A of the third class. To this group we should include such varieties as Vasilina, Coloss myronivschyny, Epoha Odessa, Zagrava Odessa, Doskonala and Rozkishna in which the protein content is more than 11.0% and wet gluten - more than 18%. Especially, it is necessary to focus on such wheat varieties as Gordovyta and Dalnytska in which the grain quality, in average for the research years, was high. According to ISO 3768: 2009 the grain of these varieties is included to the group A of the second class.

Characteristics of the optimal formation of corn hybrid under conditions of north-east forest-steppe of Ukraine

N. A. Shtukin, V. I. Onychko

A special role in the economic and social development of Ukraine belongs to the varietal plant resources. They differ in morphological characteristics, biological characteristics, the degree of intensity, quality indicators and they have different adoptive level of tolerance to the unfavorable environmental factors. Almost every year all the farmers wonder: what hybrids and which their maturity groups they should prefer. Whereas the set of hybrids included to the State Register of Plant Varieties of Ukraine is constantly improved and enriched by new, more fruitful with improved economic characteristics. New intensive hybrids are differed not only by the morphological type, but also, by ripening, productivity, tolerance to diseases, the response to agronomic measures and moisture conditions, the ability to accelerated grain moisture exchange or heat resistance and so on. For the current stable corn crops growing great importance attaches to modern hybrids that are able in certain conditions to provide high and stable yield at low rates of the grain harvesting moisture. Therefore, the study and selection of modern hybrids both domestic and foreign selection for specific soil and climatic conditions are relevant.
Field trials were conducted in the fields of «VorozhbaLativest" Ltd. Corn hybrids of different maturity groups of the selection of the Agricultural Institute of the Steppe Zone and such foreign companies as Pioneer, Syngenta, Dekalb and Mayisadour were investigated.
Significant climate changes that have happened in recent decades require from us to correct previously established recommendations on structural composition of different maturity groups of corn hybrids for the conditions of the North-East Forest-steppe of Ukraine towards increasing of mid-ripe hybrids group. Taking into consideration abovementioned and posed to us criteria of modern corn hybrids evaluation it was formed the optimal hybrid corn structure for the conditions of the North-East Forest-steppe of Ukraine. Thus, we included the early maturity hybrids PR39G12, Yarovetz 243 MB, DKC8A79, Amelior, Kanzas and mid-maturity hybrids DK315, Kobalt, Furio, P9025, PR38A79 and Lyzius to the group of hybrids that provide high yield at minimal pre-moisture grain content.

Influence of external factors on the number of tubers in the nest potato varieties of belarusian selection

A. A. Podhaietskyi, V. N. Kovalenko, Z. B. Kyenko

As a result of testing 10 varieties of Belarusian selection for three years (2008-2010) in three places: Educational and Scientific Production Complex (ESPC) SNAU, LLC "Agricultural" Sumy region and PP "Mezhyrichtske" Zhitomir region examined expression of the number of tubers in the nest. It was established that during the execution of the study found no significant difference in the manifestation index only varieties Janka between 2008 and 2010 for testing in ESPC SNAU, varieties Blakit between 2008 and 2009 in terms of LLC "Agricultural"; varieties Mag varieties for testing in 2008 and 2009 in ESPC SNAU and varieties Zdabytak in 2008 and 2010 for testing LLC "Agrarian". In other cases, the difference between the 86 variants was significant. The same applies varieties Dubrava, Janka and focus in certain years, but in different parts of the assessment.
The coefficient of variation of less than 10% occurred in the varieties Blakit, Vetraz and Zdabytak regardless of place of trial in 2008 and Universal grade in 2009. Depending on the years of similar value index observed in varieties Janka and Zdabytak for trial LLC "Agricultural". The maximum value of the coefficient of variation was varieties of in terms of a varieties Breeze "Mezhyritschtske" - 63.3%.
The largest share of voice was the following factors: the varieties Breeze, Mag, Vetraz, Zdabytak and Universal - meteorological years; varieties Dubrava, Janka and Akcent - the place of the experiment, and the variety Blakit - interaction between the two factors (conditions years and locations).
In total variance greatest impact was sort of - 30%, slightly less weather conditions year - 24% and even less - conditions include performance studies (7%). Interaction factors did not exceed 8%.
The highest overall adaptive capacity by the number of tubers in the nest characterized varieties Janka and Rahneda, specific - Breeze, Janka and Rahneda, the relative stability of display indicator varieties were Janka, Blakit and Akcent, and the breeding value of the varieties Janka.

Formation way of buckwheat breeding in the Institute of Agriculture of Nothern East
V.M. Kabanets, I. M. Strakholis
Ecological study of winter wheat varieties of different geographical origin in the conditions of the North-Eastern Forest-Steppe of Ukraine

О. Dubovik, V. Dubovik

The purpose of research - to study the performance of different geographical origin of winter wheat in the conditions of the north - eastern steppes of Ukraine.
Technology of winter wheat was common for this area. Performed drill sowing SS-16 in the unit with tractor T-25, harvesting - combine "VOLVO". Fertilization system - making basic fertilizer dose N32P32K32 + N30 + N30 early spring feeding in tillering phase-out in a tube.
Sown area - 55 m². Repeated studies in three times.
Terms winter wheat growing season in years of research significantly different and long terms. Autumn 2012 was moderately warm with average rainfall. The reserves of moisture in the presowing period characterized as good. Under these conditions, timely received full ladder. Autumn 2013 was moderately warm with excessive rainfall (206.0 mm), at a rate (139 mm), was particularly wet September (126.7 mm). Well providing moisture soil made it possible to obtain timely and complete shoots.
The suspension of the active growing season of winter wheat was 14 November.
In the years 2013-2014 was conducted research to determine the best varieties for the North-eastern steppe Ukraine. The study used different varieties breeding establishments of Ukraine. Varieties of the Mironivsky institute wheat of after named by V. Remesla showed higher yields. In average years of research yield was 9.18 t / ha. The most productive varieties - Podolyanka, Smuglaynka, Jubiljar Mironovsky. These varieties showed yield above 9 t / ha. Yields over 9.0 t / ha obtained as the varieties of the Institute of Plant after named by V. Yurieva: Rozkishna, Doskanala, Zapashna, Statna, Alliance and Dbayliva. In 2014, the varieties Statna Alliance, Dbayliva and Smuglaynka was obtained yields above 10 t / ha. Varieties other establishments formed a slightly lower yield. The lowest yield was observed in varieties Ivanovo experimental breeding station of the Institute of bioenergy crops and sugar beets. Under conditions of the northeastern forest Ukraine is better to use wheat varieties of the Mironivsky institute wheat of after named by V. Remesla and the Institute of Plant after named by V. Yurieva.

The productive potential of new varieties of spring wheat under conditions of Ukraine Forest Steppe

T. P. Lozinska

The article presents the results of a two-year research aimed at studying the productive potential of new varieties of spring wheat. The studies were conducted in order to investigate the productivity elements of new varieties of Ukrainian and foreign breeding of various genealogical origin for their involvement in the breeding process, which will reduce the time of obtaining new high-performance varieties.
Analysis on productive potential and economically valuable traits has been made. Weather conditions during the studies differed in the temperature regime. The amount of rainfall by months was also different which contributed to a comprehensive assessment of spring wheat for its economically valuable traits.
Productivity indices for vegetative and reproductive characteristics habe been defined. The analysis of spring wheat for the straw and main spike length, number of grains and spikelets in the ear and main spike grain weight has been made. Spring wheat varieties had high productivity that have not changed much over the years of research which indicates high productive potential of the varieties for their cultivation in the Forest-Steppe of Ukraine.
It has been found that Lehuan variety of wheat has high performance of main spike length, number of spikelets and grains in the ear and ear grain weight; Trizo variety has high performance of ear length and number of spikelets in the ear.
The analysis of economically valuable traits variability has been done. Marked the lowest variation in the straw length was noted in Aranca variety and the highest one – in Azhurnaya variety. The lowest fluctuations in the length of the main spike was observed in Azhurnaya variety. It has been found that the least variation in stem length, the number of spilelets in the ear and grain weight has Aranca variety, and in grains number in the ear – Azhurnaya variety. Krasa Polissya variety also has the lowest volatility of. It has been shown that main ear grain weight per ear was least affected by weather conditions in the research years.
Economic valuable traits indices of Krasa Polissya variety under conditions of the Forest Steppe of Ukraine has been studied. High performance potential of the variety has been defined.
It has been found that all the investigated cultivars are of great breeding value. The obtained data will contribute to developing the scientifically grounded program of crossing. According to the results of the data all the examined varieties of spring wheat will be involved in hybridization to create a new source material under conditions of Ukraine Forest Steppe.

State turf plants (for example on Setaria viridis (L.) Beauv. and Elytrigia repens (L.) in chronic exposure pollutants

Yu. V. Likholat, G. A. Rossikhina-Galycha, O.I. Borisova

In over ground part of Setaria of viridis (L.) of Beauv. and Elytrigia of repens (L.) of Nevski, which grew in the conditions of chronic influence of pollutants, TBK-active products content and activity of superoxidedismutase (ES and catalase (ES were determined.
It was established that investigated lawn grass species differed on lipid peroxidation secondary products content and antioxidant enzymes activity, both at control environmental conditions and aero pollutants influence. The concentration of TBA-active products in over ground of Setaria of viridis (L.) of Beauv. in virgin state (v) was higher than the corresponding index of Elytrigia of repens (L.) of Nevski, by 11 % in the control phytocenoses and 28 % in anthropogenically contaminated phytocenoses. In later stages of development (g and ss) the trend exaggeration kept: on 46 % and 79 % (Pershotravenka) and 67 % and 81 % (JSC "DMZ by Petrovsky").
Content of Malone dialdehyde was increased by 50 % from the reference value in virgin species of Setaria viridis and 30 % in Elytrigia repens. Move of Setaria viridis to the generative age (g) state was accompanied by an increase of the investigated product by 60 %, Elytrigia repens – 40 %. The maximum content of TBA-compounds was observed at moving plants to subsenyl (ss) period of ontogenesis.
It was experimentally fixed that in over ground part of virgin plants of Elytrigia repens (control area) activity superoxiddismutase had exceeded the value of the Setaria viridis enzyme by 65 %, and on research areas – by 43 %. In generative age difference between grasses activity was 74 % and 47 %, respectively. The level of SOD in Elytrigia repens from the control area had exceeded ones of Setaria viridis by 62 %, and from research area – by 34 %. In the over ground organs of green Setaria viridis grew under conditions of anthropogenic pollution enzyme activity had exceeded the control value by 50 % (v), 80 % (g) and 71 % (ss). At these conditions for Elytrigia repens tendency to exaggerate the reference level was also marked, but with a smaller amplitude, only 31 %, 52 % and 40 %.
The results are consistent with established earlier laws, according to which an SOD activity of the over ground part of Elytrigia repens and Avena fatua grew on mine cut Morozovka of village Pantayivka elevated control values by 35-40 % and 60-69 %. In addition, the maximum enzyme activity was occurred in generative age state.
Under SOD working the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide, which is a strong oxidizer and adversely affects the metabolism of plants take place. Toxicant neutralization is ensured through the operation of catalase, which breaks down Н2О2 to water and molecular oxygen. At virgin period catalase activity increased control area plants indexes on 16 % and 23 % in the leaves of Elytrigia repens and green Setaria viridis in polluted by industrial emissions and vehicle exhausts phytocenoses.
Later (generative state) enzyme activity increased by 25 % and 40 %, respectively. In subsenyl period of ontogenesis tendency to exaggerate the reference level was kept on a background of catalase activity decrease in over ground mass of Elytrigia repens (by 35 %) and Setaria viridis (by 50 %) in all phytocenoses.
Comparison of catalase activity of lawn grass from the control area showed that the rate of enzyme activity of Elytrigia repens had exceeded ones for the Setaria viridis by 38 % (virgin phase), 40 % (generative phase), 50 % (subsenyl phase). In plants from research phytocenosis a similar pattern (by 30 %, 25 % 35 %) was observed.
Thus, the studied species Elytrigia repens and Setaria viridis differ in strength response to pollution exist condition. In plants Elytrigia repens and Setaria viridis, experiencing chronic combined effects of exhaust and industrial emissions throughout ontogeny, an intensification of lipid peroxidation processes take place. This is reflected by the lipid peroxidation secondary products accumulation. Accessories of Elytrigia repens and Setaria viridis to anthropogenic component of urban phytocenosis was due to increased activity of antioxidant enzymes in over ground mass.
It should be noted that the presented grasses differ in amplitude of SOD and catalase activities. Among the two studied grass plants Elytrigia repens is the most stable on indexes of TBA-active products content and of SOD and catalase activities. This is reflected in a smaller accumulation of peroxidation products and the increased activity of protective enzymes. It was found that the indexes TBA-active products level and SOD and catalase activity can be used for biological indication of city phytocenosis state.

Coenotic optimum of pinus sylvestris small undergrowth in the forests of the Novgorod-Sivers’k Polissia

V.G. Skliar

The aim of the paper is to determine coenotic optimums for the small undergrowth of one of the leading forest-forming species of the Novgorod-Sivers’k Polissia of Ukraine Pinus sylvestris L. on the basis of unique methodology with the use of complex population analysis.
Study conducted during 2002-2013 years covered forest phytocenoses typical for the Novgorod-Sivers’k Polissia. It was established that small undergrowth cohorts are constantly presented in aggregations that belong to ten association groups.
Pinus sylvestris small undergrowth, that exists in the investigated phytocenoses, was characterized on the basis of complex population analysis. Features of Pinus sylvestris small undergrowth, by which natural regeneration becomes the most efficient, were identified on its grounds:
1. Small undergrowth density in restoration areas should be no less than 4000 individuals/ha.
2. Small undergrowth should have high vitality level with Q vitality index value in the range of 0.30 – 0.50.
3. During natural regeneration stages small undergrowth should not have the constant decrease of its cohorts vitality level, i.e. the switch to the category of average undergrowth should be characterized by value of index of vitality dynamics IVD starting at 0 and higher.
4. Necessary condition is the existence of size diversity of cohorts which is equal to the value of index of diversity of size structure (ІDSS) at the level of 25 – 50%. It is quite possible and positive for the index of diversity of size structure to exceed 50% value, but on conditions that such an increase of values is obtained not because of growth of plants share of the smallest size gradations in the cohort composition and low vitality level respectively.
5. Formation of cohorts with continuous age spectra or with insignificant discreteness. Necessary equivalence of coefficient of age spectrum discreteness (КD) to the range of values between 0 and 0.15 with the prevalence of plants aged 5-8 years. The existence of individuals more than 15-20 years old among small undergrowth is the sign of inhibition of natural regeneration process.
It was established that in the majority of cases (57,2%) condition of Pinus sylvestris small undergrowth in the restoration areas does not match indices by which natural regeneration becomes the most efficient. Pinus sylvestris small undergrowth from phytocenoses of the following association groups is notable for the most considerable deviation from optimal value: Pineta (sylvestris) calamagrostidosa (epigeioris), Pineta (sylvestris) nardosa (strictae), Pineta (sylvestris) vacciniosa (myrtilli), Pineta (sylvestris) sphagnosa, Querceta (roboris) convallariosa (majalis), Betuleta (pendulae) vacciniosa (myrtilli), Betuleta (pendulae) stellariosa (holosteae). In these forests quantities of only 1-2 population characteristics of small undergrowth reach indices that match values by which natural regeneration becomes the most efficient.
Unlike small undergrowth from the above-mentioned association groups, there is still formation of Pinus sylvestris young generation in Pineta (sylvestris) hylocomiosa and Pineta (sylvestris) franguloso (alni)–vacciniosa (myrtilli) phytocenoses with the combination of population characteristics, the majority of which match indices by which natural regeneration becomes the most efficient. These are the forest site conditions that make coenotic optimum for P. sylvestris small undergrowth.

Comparative analysis of grasses and legumes vitality structure on the flood meadows of north-eastern Ukraine in conditions of pascual and fenisicial load

L. M. Bondareva, K. S. Kyrylchuk

The analysis of the dynamics of populations vitality structure (with the determination of quality index (Q) and populations categories (prosperous, equable, depressed)) is conducted for two important farming groups – grasses and legumes in the conditions of using natural meadowlands situated on the flood meadows of north-eastern Ukraine as pastures and hayfields.
Species which are the most widespread in the grass stand and contribute most of all to meadows green mass formation were chosen for the detailed analysis. Grasses: Dactylis glomerata L., Festuca pratensis Huds, Phleum pratense L. Legumes: Trifolium pratense L., Trifolium repens L., Lotus corniculatus L.
The research results demonstrate that among grasses (D. glomerata) and legumes (T. pratense, L. corniculatus) there are species unstable to excessive pasture and haying load with their populations varying from prosperous to depressed. Such species as F. pratensis, P. pratense, T. repens are steady to both kinds of load. Their populations vary from prosperous to equable. However it should be noted that vitality structure of legumes populations is more transformed as the quality index declines from 0,37 ( T. pretense) and 0,35 ( L. corniculatus) on the areas without influence to 0,00 at excessive grazing and to 0,03 at excessive haymaking. The quality index of the grasses populations (D. glomeratа) declines from 0,46 tо 0,08 on the pascual gradient and from 0,46 to 0,1 on the fenisical one. So grasses are more stable to grazing and haymaking than legumes.
On the initial stages of gradient grasses and legumes usually have prosperous or equable type of population, showing good adaptation to the controlled load.
On the whole, grasses and legumes are more stable to haymaking than to grazing. The representatives of both farming groups have viable populations with high quality index on the areas without anthropogenic load.

Propagation of pathogens powdery and silver scab in the area of Right-Bank Ukraine Polesie

V. M. Polozhenets, S. L. Gutorchyk, A. M. Feschuk

In recent years, the bulk of agricultural production accounts for growing potatoes, which remains in private production and subsistence rural areas of right-bank Polissya of Ukraine, which in some cases is 92% of production. Potato, like all agricultural crops affected by various diseases and pests, which are a major cause significant shortfall potato crop, reducing its quality.
Violation of the rules and conditions of the winter storage of crops leads to re defeat of powdery scab and silver scab of potato, which contribute to the development of fusarial dry, wet and mixed bacterial (ring, phomosis, solid black) rottenness and cause significant crop losses due to the low similarity, weak development of vegetative mass, the formation of a small number of tubers and low marketable value.
During the 2013-2014 years a propagation of pathogens powdery (Spongospora subterranea) and silver (Helminthosporium solani) scab in the area of right-bank Polissya of Ukraine, which includes the Zhytomyr, Volyn, Rivne and Kyiv regions. Studied 14 areas, of which 2 townships and 18 villages. Sampling and analysis conducted by the Institute of Potato UAAS methods (1983) and according to international standards. The defeat of the foregoing potato pathogens was observed in all the examined areas, with some features on the degree of infestation. In most cases, a violation of growing technology, it is impossible to establish varietal composition of potatoes which are grown in private farms.
The greatest development of powdery scab established in Zhytomyr region - 19.0%, with the degree of illness of 10.3%; silver scab in Volyn region - 28.3%, with the degree of illness of 14.1%. The spread of pathogens of powdery (Spongospora subterranea) and silver (Helminthosporium solani) scab in Polissya regions mainly due to soil and climatic conditions and resistant varieties in mixtures.

Field seed-born and grains infection of winter wheat

О. T. Rozhkova, T. Bortnyk, V. Tatarinova, A. Burdulanyuk

Field pathogenic complex seeds and kernels of winter wheat was established in the north-eastern Ukrainian forest-steppe during 2007-2014 years of research. Pathogenic complex consisted of species of the genus Alternaria and Fusarium. Reduce contamination of seeds and kernels fungi of the genus Fusarium infection and increased fungi of Alternaria was found. Species composition of pathogenic fungi seeds and kernels of wheat was identified: A. tenuissima, A. alternata, F. oxysporum, F. culmorum. A. tenuissima dominated in recent years by pathogenic complex.
The relationship between weather conditions and Alternaria infection established by calculating the correlation coefficients (r). Main indicators of weather that affected the development Alternaria infection seeds and kernels of wheat were the average temperature for the second decade of May (r = + 0,576) and for the first decade of July (r = + 0,812), the amount of precipitation during the second decade of June (r = -0, 833) and the second ten days of July (r = + 0,54) . July had the greatest influence on the development of Alternaria infection when created favorable conditions for the development of pathogen Alternaria genus.
Influence of winter wheat growing conditions in different climatic zones of the development of seed infection was studied. Significant difference when comparing seed contamination from different areas of wheat was found. More affected seed of forest-steppe zone: percentage of infection was 76.4%. The seeds were infected only fungi Alternaria genus in this zone. Main species of the genus Alternaria was determined. Pathogenic complex Polissia seeds was more diverse, which in addition to the dominant species of the genus Alternaria were present a Trichothecium roseum and in small amounts - F. oxysporum. In 2012, the main species of the genus Alternaria that isolated from the seeds of winter wheat in Polissia were 'A. infectoria 'and A. tenuissima.
We studied the affection of different varieties of winter wheat. The variety significantly influenced the infection seeds and kernels. Seeds of all investigated varieties appeared largely infected with Alternaria. Little less were affected seeds of variety Favoritka, but nearly half of the tested seeds appeared affected by latent infection fungi of the genus Alternaria. Identified significant affection of wheat kernels pathogenic fungi from 39.6 to 63.8%. For such a large development of pathogenic infection managed to allocate variety Natalka, where the percentage of infected seeds was 39.6%.

Phytosanitary condition of Sumy region crops and main ways of its improvement

O. L. Govorun, V. I. Tatarynova, V. A. Vlasenko, V. M. Demenko, N. V. Khil'ko

During 2010-2014 of researches set the phytopathogenic and entomologist complex of phytophagous of agricultural cultures sowing of the Sumy area.
The most widespread wreckers in sowing of agricultural cultures were Cereal fly – Frit fly (Oscinosoma frit L. and Oscinella pusilla Mg.), Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor Say); Plant lice – Cereal green bug (Schcizaphis graminum Rond.); Cereal bug – Eurygaster (Eurygaster integriceps Put.); Beetles – Anisoplia beetle (Anisoplia austriaca Hrbst.); Wheat thrips (Haplothrips tritici Kurd.), Turnip Moth (Agrotis segetum Schiff.), Cereal grain beetles (Zabrus tenebrioides Geoze.).
Marked growth in the number of such pest: Beet webworm (Loxostege sticticales L.), Turnip mothe, European corn borer (Pyrausta nubilalis Huebher). Shows the increase in the average population, human space, and the percentage of damaged plants of Turnip mothe. In 2014 the Turnip mothe populate the almost half of all agricultural lands. The European corn borer damaged in all areas of Sumy region. The Trichogrammatide family is a main event fight against these pests in the period of oviposition. Found that the Anisoplia (agricola) beetle is the predominant view of grain beetles in Sumy region. The Anisoplia segetum beetle widespread significantly less and mainly in the area of Woodlad.
Phytopathogenic complex structure of crops included pathogens Powdery mildew (Erisiphe graminis), Helminthosporium (Bipolaris sorokiniana Shoem.), Brown leaf rust (Puccinia recondita), Root rot (Fusarium sp., Bipolaris sorokiniana Shoem., Cercosporella herpotrichoides). Intensity of development of these illnesses hesitated from weak to moderate. There is a tendency to the increase of defeat of grain-crops sowing by the exciter of powdery mildew.

Green manure crop and water permeability of the soil

Y.H. Mischenko, N. I. Poletaeva

In this paper we presented the results of the effect after crop green manure and ways of basic soil cultivation on the permeability of typical black soil and formation of the potato and sugar beets yield in the conditions of the north-eastern Forest-steppe of Ukraine.
The carrying out of the deep moldboard-free cultivation on the depth 28-30cm for clotting of the oil radish green manure provides the best conditions for increase of the water permeability of the soil (4,22-1,8mm/min.) at sugar beets and potatoes cultivation.
Starting of the first 10 minutes and ending of the last minute of accounting the water permeability on the parcels with using deep moldboard-free cultivation for clotting green manure was more higher than other variants (on 0,05-0,08mm/min.). The biggest quantity of the soil water permeability in such variant is explained by deep soil loosening, by better water resistance structure and by absence of the soil peel thanks to the crop remains on the surface.
Despite that after plowing was also the deep soil loosening but in comparison with the deep moldboard-free loosening we have decrease of water permeability which becomes significant from the 50th minute of accounting. The reason of this is as colmatation (mudding) of between the aggregates space by the pulverulent units as well as the presence of the plow sole – rammed layer which slows down the horizontal movement of moisture.
The moldboard-free cultivations on depth 13-15cm and 6-8cm to the 40th minute of the first hour of the water permeability determination, they concede to plowing though in the future they prevail her in intensity of the absorption and the filtration of water by the soil. This advantage of variants of not deep moldboard-free cultivations to plowing is connected with the preservation of the undisturbed vertical orientation of the pore space and by higher water resistance of the soil aggregates. The water permeability of soil increased with the application of green manure radish oil on 0,11-1,18mm/min.
Positive and middle by density correlation dependence (r = 0,46-0,6) is installed between the phytomass green manure of oil radish and water permeability of the soil. Between depth of moldboard-free cultivations and water permeability of the soil found positive and the mean by density correlation dependence (r = 0,43-0,45). The water permeability of soil are more dependent on after crop green manure (80%) than on cultivation of soil (8%).
The high inverse correlation between soil density and water permeability of the soil was found (r = - 0,75-0,80). Between water resistance of the soil aggregates and water permeability of the soil found positive and the mean by density correlation dependence (r = 0,5-0,62).
Thus, the improvement of the water resistance and density of soils helped to increase the of water permeability of the soil that eventually allowed to receive the largest harvest of sugar beet - 36.6 t / ha and potatoes - 30.9 t / ha on a variant moldboard-free cultivation on the depth 28-30cm for clotting of the oil radish green manure

Hydration capacity of peas crops, winter wheat and sugar beets according to various ways of basic soil tillage

V. H. Kryhanivskyi

Materials of three-year study of the moisture content of pea, winter wheat and sugar beet plants for the different ways of basic tillage were presented. The lack of moisture during the growing season often leads to sharp yield fluctuations from year to year, so all farming practices, including mechanical tillage, first of all should be directed to the accumulation, preservation and rational use of water by plants.
The replacement of moldboard tillage on zero-tillage in five-link crop rotation was not followed by worsening of moisture supply of peas, winter wheat, and sugar beet during vegetative period. The choice of cultivation is depend on many factors. The most important is the accumulation and preservation of soil moisture. Moisture plays an important role in the soil and improves soil fertility. It has a direct impact on the most important processes occurring in the soil and determines nutritious and air temperature and biological properties of it. Soil moisture is often the crucial factor in the yield. Density, hardness of the soil, especially fragmentation and traction depended on humidity and effort during cultivation, because water regime remains the primary measure to increase crop productivity in adaptive farming systems. Sustainability of grain production in the steppe is largely determined by soil moisture reserves. Unfortunately, in recent years there is a deterioration of the water regime of black soil moisture and plant due to the manifestation of abnormal weather phenomena, development of erosion, disturbance of farming systems. In general, it leads to the need to improve the basic elements of farming cultivation of field crops, normalization human impact on the earth by improving the structure of crops, the introduction of minimum tillage technologies, rational use of fertilizers and plant remains.
Soil moisture regime is very important for plant during the growing season. You must create the optimum conditions of soil moisture, as both lack and excess moisture adversely affect plant growth and development. Up to 70% agricultural areas in Ukraine suffers from a lack of soil moisture during the growing season, as storage costs and saving water is a task for different agronomic practices. One of them is a system of cultivation, which creates prerequisites accumulation and economical costs of moisture in the soil for crops.
A large amount of experimental data was accumulated about the impact of tillage on the soil humidity of field crops. Special attention is given in this regard compared the efficiency moldboard tillage.
Permeability provides moisture absorption during the rainy season and during snowmelt. A satisfactory level of permeability not less than 1 mm/min is observed on clay loam impermeable soils with units of at least 40-50%, and size distribution in light soil particle.
Tillage and rest from tillage can significantly influence on plant moisture content. Improving of the water regime was set of replacing tillage by cultivation due to mold formation on the soil surface from mulch of post-harvest residues in black soil in Steppe.
At the same time we did not observed effect of soil moisture of zone light soils in Polessya that is due to high natural permeability of the soil. Such laws regarding light soil particle size distribution were relevant only in certain conventional tillage technology systems.
By studying the latest technology, which received biphasic definition, we found out very different patterns. The essence of the proposed technological system is to avoid the deep autumn cultivation fall. During this time it is assumed conservation dense structure acquired during the previous growing season. Before the sustainable cooling all operations performed on a minimum depth or to replace by the use of herbicides. For this autumn background spring cultivation is carried out to a depth of pre-earning seeds and sowing.

Copper in soils of agrarian and urbolandscapes of Zhytomyr Polissia region

T. M. Myslyva, Yu. A. Bilyavskyj

The features of the migration of copper on the profile of the main soil types of natural and agricultural landscapes were established and the coefficients of concentration of strongly fixed forms of copper in the upper 0-20 cm soil layer of natural, agricultural and urbolandscapes were defined. It was determined that in the soil cover of agrolandscapes relatively low content of gross forms of copper is fixed, which ranges from 1-2 to 6-8 mg/kg on the average. The average content of gross forms of copper within the limits of natural landscapes is 4-8 mg/kg and in the urbanozems of park and recreation and agrosettle landscapes the content of gross copper is from 8 to 10 and more mg/kg. A characteristic feature of the distribution of strongly fixed copper in the soil profile is its accumulation in the upper genetic horizons, rich in organic matter. The maximum quantity of copper concentrates in soils of forest ecosystems, where the forest floor accumulates the maximum quantity of the mobile forms of Cu. The coefficient of concentration of copper in the plow layer of soil in agricultural landscapes in average varies from 1.11 to 2.42. Index of soil saturation with this element corresponds to the background content. The copper should be seen as a deficient trace element for soil of agricultural landscapes and its reserves in the soil must be replenished. The copper is a pollutant of urbanozems of agrosettle landscapes because the coefficient of its concentration reaches 9-22 units. Instead the concentration ratio of copper for urbanozems of park and recreational landscape not exceed 0.4-0.8, but in some cases its value reaches 1.7-1.9

Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd in the agropopulated landscapes in the south-west part of Zhytomyr

L. Gerasymchuk

The paper discusses the results of studies about levels of heavy metals in urbanozems (urban soils) and vegetables which are grown in the agropopulated landscapes in the south-west part of Zhytomyr.
The soil is one of the most conservative components of the landscape, reliable indicator of overall ecological condition of the territory, so the definition of the state and its properties are very topical issue nowadays. The study of the forms and migration of chemical elements within residential areas makes possible to assess the degree of contamination as well as the possibility of flow of pollutants in the human body. Given that monitoring vegetable production, much of which is grown in home gardens, which are often quite contaminated and nearby highways, virtually absent, there is a need to establish the characteristics of accumulation of pollutants in potatoes and vegetables.
It has been found that the studied urbanozems are well-cultivated in the process of individual gardening and vegetable growing and have favorable agrochemical properties for growing potatoes and other vegetables. Urbanozems had: humus - 1.8 - 3.6%, pH of soil solution - 6.5 - 7.0, hydrolyzed nitrogen - 148 - 739 mg / kg, soil mobile phosphorus - 52-102 mg / kg, exchangeable potassium - 701 - 1000 mg / kg soil.
To assess the degree of danger element we used pollutant concentration factor (contrast, anomalous, scattering) - the ratio between the concentration of pollutants and its background content (GOST Soil saturation index element (s) (Iel) determined in accordance with the methodology set forth in the Y.M Dmytruk (2003) [3], the total index of pollution (Zc) by the technique S.A Balyuk (2004).
The main pollutants of the urbanozems are copper (Kr = 2,7 – 10,1), zinc (Kr = 57,2 – 247,7) and plumbum (Kr = 6,3 – 61,0), whereas cadmium and plumbum for crop production. The most danger of high accumulation in crops within the study of Zhitomir have copper for beets, parsley, potatoes; zinc - beet, parsley leaf, sweet corn; plumbum - dining carrot, parsley leaf, potatoes.
According to the total pollutional index Zc the urbanozems are referred to the category of dangerous (Ozdorovchyi and Tsyurupa Lanes) and extremely dangerous pollution (Guivynskyi and Pionerskykh Taboriv Lanes) and are unsuitable for individual vegetable growing.

Dependence of the productivity level of spring barley from the mineral fertilizer rates and foliar application under conditions of Western Forest Steppe

V. I. Lopushnyak, N. I. Vega

The objective of our research was to determine the effectiveness of different levels of mineral nutrition by foliar feeding preparations of organic origin, which are composed of minerals containing the number of productive stems and yield of spring barley in dark gray podzolic soil of Western Forest - Steppes of Ukraine.
Research study on the subject was conducted on the experimental field of the Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry of the Lviv National Agrarian University with two-factor scheme. A factor provided purely mineral fertilization system. according to the factor in the processing carried foliar barley crops during the growing season.
As a result of studies there has been found a positive effect of different backgrounds mineral fertilizer and foliar fertilizing agents of organic origin trace-element composition stem resistance on productivity and yield of spring barley.
For the cultivation of spring barley in the control option, where the power plant was due to natural fertility of the soil, the number of productive stems was observed minimum value. Due to the use of mineral fertilizers their growth has been observed. The highest number of productive stems per unit area obtained in the form of fertilization normally N45P45K45, which was 529 pcs./м2. Excess unfertilized background here was 27 %. Leaf feeding is not influencing the performance stem resistance of spring barley.
For barley growing without fertilization, where the power plant was due to the use of nutrients from the soil, yields were at their lowest – 2.8 t/ha. With the application of mineral fertilizers observed enlarge. With the use of fertilizers in normal N30P30K30 and N45P30K30 it grew respectively to 3.5 and 3.6 t/ha. A similar effect of fertilization showed up on a background of mineral fertilizers in normal N60P30K30, where the level of yield was 3.7 t/ha. Option fertilization N45P45K45 boosted yields to 3.9 t/ha, which was the highest in the conditions of the experiment and control exceeded 1.1 t/ha or 39.3 %.
At backgrounds mineral fertilizer N60P45K45 and N60P60K60 marked decrease in productive stem resistance and yield of barley. In these embodiments observed phenomenon lodging of crops, which is due to excessive regulations fertilizers, particularly nitrogen. As a result, reduced the number of productive stems per unit area and grain yields.
Holding foliar feedings drug Fortihreyn Foliar provided barley yield gains depending on the background of mineral fertilizer at 0.14 – 0.37 t/ha or 3.6 – 10.7 %. The effectiveness of integrated application Humifild combined with Fulvital Plus manifested in the increase of yield by 0.12 – 0.41 t/ha, or 3.2 – 10.5 %. The drug Frey Aqua by different norms of fertilizers contributed to the growth of this index by 0.04 – 0.35 t/ha or 1.2 – 10.0 %.

Nutrient balance of sod - podzol soil in legumes grass cultivation

U. M. Karbivska, O. Y. Turak

In research, we have to use zoned and promising varieties of legumes (red clover variety Darunok, clover hybrid variety Rojeva 27, alfalfa crop variety Andi, and Lotus corniculátus, variety Ajax), The soil of experimental field, presented sod-podzolic surface-gleyslightly acid soil, content of alkali hydrolyzed nitrogen and moving phosphorus very low and exchangeable of potassium medium provided. On average for the years of growing legumes percentage of legumes to grasses was between 24 to 43%. The greatest coverage of leaves was observed onclover variant hybrid varieties Rojeva 27 and was 50.4%. It was established that the accumulation of nodules on the root system was different in legumes. Thus, the largest number of nodules in the 0-50 cm layer was found to variant alfalfa crop varieties Andi. which amounted to 258 units. in the budding phase.
Cost analysis of nitrogen from the soil for 2014 showed that the most intensively used this battery Lotus corniculátus and red clover - removal of the harvest was 105.4 kg / ha and 100.3 kg / ha, respectively. This is a high performance data crops. The lowest recorded losses of nitrogen in alfalfa crop - 98.6 kg / ha, which correlates with the lowest performance of this option. Index receipt of biological nitrogen into the soil mostly dependent on the efficiency of nitrogen fixation. Most revenue from nitrogen fixation nitrogen fixed in version with Lotus corniculátus variety Ajax - 140.8 kg / ha, and the least - in hybrid version with clover varieties Rojeva 27 - 91.8 kg / ha, which is 34.8% less than the previous version. The total balance was negative on variants of hybrid varieties Rojeva clover and 27 was -8.2 kg / ha, the largest of its rate was fixed at the option of Lotus corniculátus variety Ajax - 35.7 kg / ha.
In 2014, the cost analysis of phosphorus showed that the most intensively used this battery Lotus corniculátus variety Ajax - 32.0 kg / ha and clover varieties Darunok- 31.0 kg / ha. The smallest loss of phosphorus was awarded a variant of the alfalfa crop varieties Andy - 25.5 kg / ha, which is associated with the lowest performance of the option. Cost analysis potassium showed that the most intensively used this battery Lotus corniculátus - 91.4 kg / ha. The lowest costs potassium were awarded a variant of the alfalfa crop - 71.4 kg / ha. The balance of nitrogen and phosphorus in all variants was positive, confirming the effectiveness of high enough legumes. Potassium balance was negative for all variants of the experiment.

Influence of mineral fertilizers on the agrochemical properties of sod-podzolic soil under different-depth tillage in field crop rotation

O. Turak

The analysis of nitrogen balance indicates show that the calculated application rate and increased mineral fertilizer helps equalize the indicator for the state of equability conventional tillage to 52.2% and 62.3%, shallow plowing by 71.9% and 85.9% respectively. In disking fertilizers provide a positive nitrogen balance and is 3.9 kg / ha - calculated rate, 8.1 kg / ha - increased rate.
Our research has shown that phosphorus balance for growing winter wheat, spring barley, oat mixture Viko- oatmeal variants without fertilization is negative. It should be noted that the options with the introduction of the calculated dose of fertilizer balance increases by 47.0 kg / ha of winter wheat at 46.1 kg / ha of barley and ardent to 53.3 kg / ha during Viko- oatmeal mixture. Increased dose of mineral fertilizer phosphorus balance favored the increase (compared to the calculated dose fertilization) 40.2% under winter wheat at 39.6% in barley ardent, 45.2% under Viko- oatmeal mixture.
Analysis of the contents of exchangeable potassium in the soil shows that the lowest content was observed in cultures of macro-level field crop rotation on variants without fertilization (control), the average value in the 0-10 cm layer in conventional tillage is 26.7 mg / kg, shallow plowing - 26.9 mg / kg, disking - 27.1 mg / kg. Change indicators potassium depending on the depth of soil and mineral fertilizer standards are close to the dynamics of phosphorus in the soil.
The dynamic balance of nutrients and sod-podzolic gley soil surface vary with different levels of mineral fertilizer and different deep basic soil. With the use of mineral fertilizer system to sod-podzolic soil is almost impossible to ensure a positive balance of humus and preserve soil fertility without the use of organic fertilizer. There is a tendency to increase the nutrient content in the 0-10 cm soil layer with decreasing depth of cultivation.

Dynamics of changes in the acidity of the chernozem under the influence of defecation in the rotation

V. M. Martynenko, M. M. Siryak, I.V. Nesin

The dynamics of changes in acidity and agrochemical characteristics of soil in crop rotation under the influence of the action of introducing defecate. Observations were conducted in the SEC AF "First of may" Sumy region during 2004-2012. The reaction of the soil solution has a great influence on the life of plants, soil microorganisms, the speed and the direction of chemical and biochemical processes occurring in the soil. In conditions of high soil acidity increases the solubility of compounds of aluminum and manganese, which increase the negative effect on plants, resulting in slowing down the development of the root system.
It is known that the primary radical improvement of fertility acid soils and crop yields is a chemical reclamation. Because soil limestone fertilizer neutralizes excess acidity, provides plants with calcium and magnesium, activates microbiological processes, increases fertilizer efficiency and productivity of crop rotation.
One of the most affordable ameliorants for liming is defecation, which is used to neutralize acidic soils. Defecation refers to a fairly efficient limestone fertilizers containing phosphorus and trace elements and is integrated. It is not contaminated with heavy metals and refers to environmentally friendly ameliorant. Make it based on the content of CaCO3, during autumn plowing, or in rows at sowing 2-3 t/ha. According to the Institute of agriculture of NAAS of Ukraine defecation gives such increases crop yields (kg/ha): sugar beet - 20-30; winter wheat - 20-30, barley - 20-30, pea - 20-30. Defecation not only increases the yield of sugar-beet roots, but their sugar content is 0.2 to 0.4%. The experience was founded in the fall of 2004 (September 12). Defecation was added at the amount of 8.2 t/ha with the content of CaCO3 and MgCO3 - 55%. The soil of the experimental field is represented by the typical Chernozem uruguayn humus krupnovesovoe cerebrospinalis. For agrochemical analysis annually, during 2004-2012 conducted in the fall soil sampling.
The results of this work we can conclude that the use defecate as ameliorant improves the physical and chemical properties of typical Chernozem wylogowanie humus, significantly reduces hydrolytic soil acidity and pdeso amount outbreak bases. Soil acidity is reduced, improving the soil structure and improves the air-water regime. Conducting the reclamation defecate promotes vaginas crops.

Environmental assessment of different crop rotations on the balance of humus

O. V. Kharchenko, I. N. Masik, J. G. Mishchenko, G. A. Davidenko

The rotation provides the opportunity to develop the technology of cultivation of crops taking into account their mutual influence, as well as the aftereffect of each event used in the next predecessors. That is why the growth of farming can only be achieved if compliance with science-based crop rotations that meet the specific climatic conditions and specialization of agricultural production.
Properties of soils, even the most fertile, such as black, do not always meet the needs of cultivated plants, especially their high-yielding varieties. Therefore, the creation of necessary conditions for crop growth, rational use and protection of soils, preservation and increase of their fertility is the main objective in all phases of agriculture. On the basis of lessons learned regarding the impact on the balance and content of humus german researchers divided the crops into four groups.
1. Perennial forage crops on arable land in low-intensity tillage enrich the soil with humus and nitrogen.
2. Annual legumes enrich soil nitrogen and reduce the reserves of humus.
3. Grain cereals with low intensity of cultivation less lower content of humus and nitrogen than tilled crops.
4. Cultivated crops that are grown under intensive cultivation, severely reducing the content of humus and nitrogen in the soil.
In addition, the rotation determines the agronomic strategy to increase soil productivity and crop yields, identifies and connects in a single complex all parts of agriculture. From specialization of crop rotations, composition and alternation of crops depend fertilizer system, mechanical tillage and other agronomic and reclamation activities.
The basic principle of the supply of humus in the soil when growing any crop is that after exclusion of the main products in the field as a whole remains whole by-products. The products according to the latest recommendations consists of straw or listoftables mass and stubble and roots. The total output of by-products can be defined as the ratio of main products and the fates in this production of straw and stubble and roots. It should also be noted that the first half of side products may be trademarks, as may be expropriated for livestock, energy, construction, etc. and by-products, which remains on the field, wrapped in soil (all or only the stubble and roots) and the product of this process turned into humus. The humification coefficient of crop residues is for individual zones and culture. In addition it is well known that for optimum conditions of humification-mineralization is necessary nitrogen fertilizers in the amount of 8 - 10 kg d. g/t of by-products, and often only straw or listoftables mass.
The aim of this work was to compare and evaluate different crop rotations with the goal of choosing the best option for the balance of humus. It should be considered appropriate, consideration of options without the use of fertilizers. Variant without application of fertilizers is the base or background that characterizes the productivity of this crop rotation on the soil of a particular climatic zone.
It should be noted that the productivity of crop rotation depends on both the productivity of each crop in the rotation, and the specific weight of each culture in the structure of this rotation. This, in turn, points to the feasibility of this study. You should consider a full assessment of the productivity of all major crops.
We conducted an assessment of two rotations in their ability to accumulate or lose humus. The largest deficit of humus in crop rotations, rospana us, occurs after the cultivation of corn, as in the first and second rotations, respectively 0,024 - 0,048 t/ha, although the highest biomass was formed exactly for the usage of this crop in our experiments. The surplus of the balance of humus in turn observed after continuous cultures of sowing method, especially after winter wheat (0,110 t/ha). So, the calculations of the balance of humus in different rotations, it can be noted that the decrease in the area cultivated crops continuous sowing method and replace it in the structure of the second rotation prospray culture leads to an estimated reduction of humus content in the soil of this rotation.

Peculiarities of influence of phenological phases of grafts on grafting of Abies Holophylla Maxim

R. I. Madziuk, R. A. Yaroshchuk, A. S. Zhyla

The results of the research work on determining the most favorable conditions for inoculating with A. holophylla on А. Alba. were presented. The analysis of influence for phenological stages of rootstock on grafts has been done. It has been considered that the best rate of grafting was during the swelling period of vegetative buds. According to the research data with usage of laying the medulla on cambium method the rate of grafting was 85-90% and with cambium on cambium method – 75 %.
Optimal time for grafting for A. holophylla it was the swelling period of vegetative buds. The phenological stage of swelling and blossoming of buds grafting happened two weeks earlier then when the procedure was done during the period of resting. Grafting during the period of linear growth showed the worst results.
It has been found that the best result of grafting was with laying the cambium on cambium method in green-house – 88 % and 74 % in outdoors. Usage of the method of laying the medulla on cambium showed the 86 % result of grafting in different. Grafting to lateral incision showed the worst results 46 and 58% accordingly.
The dynamics of growth for grafted plants according to the conditions of growing has been researched. According to experimental data the best methods for grafting of A. holophylla were: laying the cambium on cambium and laying the medulla on cambium. These methods showed the best results of grafting and growing under the conditions of green-house and outdoors.
Experimental research confirmed perspectives of heterovegetative reproduction for mass production of A. holophylla using the A. alba as a rootstock.

Peculiarities of Thuja Occidentalis L. vegetative reproduction in the conditions of Sumy national agrarian university

V. S. Tokman, J. S. Kirichenko

The literature review shows that research on cultivation of Thuja occidentalis L. planting material from woody stem cuttings does not cover the whole process of cultivation. There is scare information about the influence of the substrate type and some biologically active substances (fumera and 1% rhizopon AA рoeder) on the rooting process of Thuja occidentalis lignified cuttings. Therefore, there is a need for in-depth study of its capability for vegetative method of propagation under fine moisturizing conditions.
The aim of the study was to increase the volume of Thuja occidentalis planting material by breeding of lignified stem cuttings in conditions of artificial fog.
The research work was carried out in two experiments:
1. The influence of substrate type on the growth and development of Thuja occidentalis cuttings.
2. The influence of some biologically active substances (fumera and 1% rhizopon AA рoeder) on the process of rooting of Thuja occidentalis woody stem cuttings and on biometrics of plants.
The scheme of the research included options, where variability factors were different substrate composition and biologically active substances fumera and 1% rhizopon AA poeder.
The first experiment, where the influence of substrate type on the growth and development of Thuja occidentalis was under study, was as follows: 1. control group (peat+humus (1:1)); 2. peat+sand+humus (1:1:1); 3. sand+peat (1:1). Thuja occidentalis cutting process was conducted during the third week of May.
The scheme of the experiment for determining the influence of some biologically active substances on Thuja occidentalis rooting process had the following options: 1.a control group (water); 2. fumera; 3. 1% rhizopon AA poeder. Thuja occidentalis cutting process was conducted in the third decade of April. The substrate for rooting of Thuja occidentalis cuttings was a mixture of sand and peat "DOMOFLOR" pH (6.0 to 6.5) in a 1:1 ratio.
Thuja occidentalis uterine plants, about 20 years of age, were used for grafting.
Selection of the optimal type of substrate for a vegetative reproduction of Thuja occidentalis allows you to regulate vital processes in the plant organism, as well as to promote efficiency of technological operations. The high nutritive saturation level of the substrate affects the growth and development of Thuja occidentalis rooted cuttings, and also causes the deterioration of commercial qualities.
In our research the type of the substrate affected the root system weight of Thuja occidentalis rooted cuttings.
The optimal type of substrate, the usage of certain biologically active compounds and favorable environment conditions are important conditions for the system of growing of Thuja occidentalis planting material.
The best substrate for rooting Thuja occidentalis cuttings has appeared to be a mixture of sand and peat"DOMOFLOR" pH (6.0 to 6.5) in a 1:1 ratio.
The feasibility of using biologically active compounds (1% rhizopon AA рoeder) for a better Thuja occidentalis root cuttings formation of rootage has been proved. The usage of 1% rhizopon AA рoeder gives an opportunity to increase the percentage of rooting of stem cuttings by 58% in comparison with the control group.

Effect of basic fertilization on the development of Callistephus Chinensis under conditions of the North-Eastern Steppe of Ukraine

T.I. Melnyk, O.V. Surgan

The data of complex experimental studies on changes in morphological characteristics, characteristics of varieties of C. chinensis in terms of the northeastern steppes of Ukraine was articled. During the research in 2014, C. chinensis plants were growing full development cycle from germination to ripe seeds. As a result of phenological observations, the following phases of development: ladder formation system of sprouts, budding, flowering, fruiting and end of the growing season. Terms and flowering sequence depends on the biological characteristics of varieties duration (40-60 days) - the climatic conditions. Analysis of the duration of flowering indicates that the minimum rate of 35 days is sort of 'Jabluneva', and the maximum - 48 days in a sort of 'Olenka' and 'Laplata'. That is, the climatic conditions in 2014 were favorable for long flowering.
The timing of flowering varieties identified 3 groups: early - the length of the "ladder - a massive bloom" is 120-130 days, average - 131-145 days, late - 146-160 days. Optimal conditions of light, heat, moisture in certain periods of plant development can help to accelerate flowering C. chinensis 5-10 days. In terms of the northeastern forest-steppe late varieties 'Pamina', 'Tsarivna' and 'Leleka' and early variety 'Jabluneva' proved to be the average of the timing of flowering. All other sorts were not abnormalities. Length of the "ladder - mass flowering" options is within not more than 3-4 days. That is not a significant impact of fertilizers on the figure.
Against the background of the natural environment of the region observed variability studies major morphological characters C. chinensis. Quantitative indicators variability of the sorts characteristics (height and number of inflorescences bush) are determined ecotope and biological individuality and mineral nutrition regime during the growing season. All morphological characters have a tendency to grow by increasing doses of complex mineral fertilizers to 6 g/m2 and the subsequent decrease in - at maximum doses (9 g/m2).
Application of growing seedlings showed that seed varieties in terms of the northeastern forest-steppe is possible. Given the complex morphological, generative and vegetation characteristics, it was found that high performance seed varieties are 'Odarka' (1,36-3,42 g) 'Oksana' (1,0-3,09 g), 'Jabluneva' (2,09-2,46 g) 'Olenka' (1,05-2,8 g); 'Leleka' (0,95-2,8 g) and 'Pamina' (1,54-2,52 g).

Influence of terms of development of Foeniculum vulgare on laboratory germination of seed

P. M. Dmytryk

Results of research of dependence of quality of seeds fenhel ordinary from the period of progress of plants and agroweatherconditions investigated region are resulted. It has defined the mechanism of formation different quality seeds in communication with timeframes of maturing of a crop. Have stated principles of improvement of seed qualities fenhel ordinary due to variation of the certain technological parameters.
The zone of Preсarpathians of the Ivano-Frankivsk area can not be considered the zone of the assured seed-grower of fenhel ordinary. In the best case it is here possible to get it in quality at the level of 3-th class of sowing standard.
For finding out of mechanisms of acquisition the seed of different quality were system take away seminal standards: at the 10.30% ripeness of plants (young age), 30.50% (middle age) and 50.70% (old age).
In a summer period the seed of fenhel are formed at an average daily temperature 20,7-21,7 ºС and sum of active temperatures 538-564 ºС, in summer-autumn - 16,8-18,6 ºС and 504-505 ºС. the Maximal difference between the sums of active temperatures, that has statistical confirmation (at the level of t05) marked between variants 30 and to the 50% ripeness of plants. In another cases temperature differences remained unreliable statistically. This factor is not qualificatory in creation different quality of seed. Other business is precipitations for that characteristic high changeability - VΣW=35,3-91,0%. It stipulated a statement, that this factor forms ecological different quality of seed.
Laboratory likeness of seed on the whole is characterized as a middle variant sign (V=of 16,08%). Maximal differences arrived at 30-36% (85-49=36) on occasion. Force of action of weather terms presented 40%. However, after general experience НІР05 statistically reliable were only differences with a variant is a "30% ripeness of plants". This variant differed with a variant "10%" - on 15%, "50%" - 12% and "70%" - 20% at НІР05=of 12%.
It is set after the method of grouping, that folded the best terms of forming of seed of fenhel, when a sum of active temperatures in the period of direct development of garden-stuffs is at the level of 544 ˚C, a sum of precipitations is a 50,1 mm, ГТК - 0,95. Under similar circumstances laboratory likeness presents 84% (on 4 % higher requirements to And to the class of sowing standard), but probability of such positive situation is subzero - 10% from 20 cases.

Agroecological features of production of sunflower variety-populations in the conditions of North-Eastern Forest-Steppe of Ukraine

O.G. Zhatov, V. I. Trotsenko, H. O. Zhatova, O. M. Masiuchenko

The varieties of sunflower-populations originated in Sumy National Agrarian University adapt to conditions of the region including: early ripening, the ability to generate sustainable yield under stressful abiotic factors and so on. They are characterized by high genetic potential of productivity, adaptability to specific agro-ecological conditions. The interaction of the plant organism with environmental factors affects the processes of growth and development and reflects the full range of metabolic processes and their intensity. Changing the conditions of plant existence in agrocenose through the use of various agronomic factors affects the growth and development of plants. Achieving of maximize productive potential of sunflower variety is possible only in the case of study of their adaptive features to agroecological conditions of the region.
Plant ability to form the certain level of productivity largely depends on their capasity to adapt to the growing conditions that are not stable. The technology of crops production (sunflower among them), should be constantly improve and correct, taking into consideration the changeable abiotic environment. The problem of adaptation of new crop genotypes in general and sunflower in particular attracted the attention of many researchers. The research of agro-climatic conditions influence on sunflower was carried out by Tkalich I.D., Polyakov O.I., Markov N.V. in the Steppe zone, by Kirichenko V.V., Kolomaksky V.P. in the Eastern Forest-Steppe. The level of plant productivity depends on abiotic factors that widely change, besides the level of this variation in different agro-climatic zones. So there is a need to study the influence of abiotic factors regarding growing characteristics, district, region, area. Lots of the research in this area is insufficient and the purpose of our work - to supplement of existing information on the problem mentioned above.
The purpose of research – study agrotechnological influence events and hydrothermal conditions adaptable varieties of sunflower breeding populations-SNAU that determine the characteristics of their formation and development productivity. Sunflower varieties Chas and Hutoryanyn and terms of sowing (I – soil temperature at a depth of 10 cm – 5-7 ° C, II – 7-10 ° C, III – 12-15 ° C) in different hydrothermal conditions of years of research (2009-2011) were studied.
Weather conditions of the research period (2009-2011 ) were characterized by certain deviations from the average long-term indicators of both rainfall and air temperature, so it was possible to investigate the reaction of sunflower varieties to effect of abiotic factors.
There is a clear dependence between qualitative and quantitative sunflower seedlings stands and hydrothermal conditions of the year. The most favorable conditions for field germination were in 2009: moisture level and thermal regime provided the high field germination. As for sowing term the most optimal conditions (in all years of study) for germination were fixed with soil temperature of 7-10 C0 (medium term). Both varieties – Chas and Hutoryanyn revealed the similar reaction to the influence of abiotic factors.
In Chas variety the difference in the yield between most favorable (2009) and less favorable year conditions during the growing season was 0.3 t / ha, and in Hutoryanyn varity – 0.2 t / ha (average term of sowing). The second term of sowing was the best for both varieties of sunflower, despite of significant differences in weather conditions during research period. Qualitative indicators of seed oil content were also the highest on the above mentioned variant.
Conclusion. Abiotic factors (temperature and humidity) are determinant in influence of the field germination of sunflower seeds and plant survival. Hydrothermal conditions were significantly influence the formation of seed yield and their oil content. Sunflower yield depends on the biological variety characteristics, weather conditions and terms of sowing.

Influence of species cimposition of multicomponent mixtures of annual forage crops and parts of their components for food productivity and quality

A. O. Butenko, Z. I. Hlupak

The multicomponent annual forage crops and proportion of species composition components influence on productivity and fodder quality is defined. The four-component annual mixed fodder with different ratios of legume and cereal components that provides high yields of green forage with balanced content of protein units is recommended for agricultural producers in the North-Eastern Forest-Steppes of Ukraine. The highest profitability level by growing four-component mixtures (ratio of legumes to cereal components 2:1) has been established.
The main purpose of research was to determine the multicomponent annual forage crops and proportion of species composition components influence on productivity and fodder quality. Besides it was supposed to identify the ways of green forage yield increasing and expenses reducing by agrotechnical factors optimization.
The yield value and green fodder quality depends on growing conditions. Herewith individual agricultural techniques are considered in terms of high yields achievement and its impact on fodder quality. Good nutritional value forage isn`t always formed with high yields.
Average for research variants the multicomponent mixtures with ratio of legumes to cereal components 2:1 obtained the highest yield of green fodder – 20,7 t/ha by the harvesting time, which was 3,2 t/ha more than double mixtures and 0,8-2,1 t/ha higher than four-component mixtures other composition.
In Forest-Steppe of Ukraine according to research results is recommended to use vetch, pea, oat and triticale for fodder mixtures in ratio of legumes to cereal components 2:1, which provides the highest yield, productivity and profitability.

Features of density formation and yield capasity crops of hulled and naked-seeds oats

V.I.Trotsenko, V.O.Ilchenko, H.O.Zhatova

The important feature of plant production as the crop science and the branch of agriculture is the constant change in the conditions that determine the quantity and quality of economic yield. In the technological aspect this is the result of variation of the complex factors such as climate, weather and soil cultivation as well as the emergence of new varieties and groups with special requirements to growing conditions.
On the basis of changes defining the calculated parameters of pre-harvesting plants density it was considered the plant complex that provides more optimal (compared to other schemes) redistribution of photosynthesis production first of all for the formation of organs and parts of plants that create the economic yield.
Changing of crops structure occurs simultaneously with changes in the orientation of the main part of yield in such crops as oats and rye with changing forage direction to the food one. As for oats this process accelerated with the appearance and introduction into production of naked-seeds varieties oriented on the production of food products, including dietary foods and baby foods.
Research concerning determination of the sowing rate influence on the growth, development and formation of hulled oats and naked-seeds oats productivity was carried out during 2012-2014 in Sumy National Agrarian University.
The scheme of the experiment included the formation of seeding gradient in the range of 3,0 to 7,5 ml/ha with the step of 0.5 ml/ha for hulled varieties of oats Busol and Zakat and naked-seed varieties Skarb of Ukraine, Samuel and Solomon. Size of plot was 1,8 × 8 = 14,4 m2. Total factorial experiment formula was N = La × Lv = 5 × 10 × 4 = 200.
The main technological tool which determines the final (pre-harvesting) stands density is the sowing rate. The difference between calculated and actual number of sown seeds determines by the field germination and crops density. Decreasing of crops density is the result of pant extinction in the juvenile stages of development. It was established that the dominant influence of biotic factors complex, i.e. the transition to the state of self-seeding system started at the plants density of more than 350 plants/m2 for hulled oat and 380 - 400 plants/m2 for naked-seed oat that coincided with the sowing rate of 4,5 and 5,0 ml/ha, respectively.
Overall, pre-harvesting crops density in both groups of varieties or the actual number of plants for the period of full maturity, increased in proportion to the sowing rate. This dependence was described by a linear regression where the level of correlation between parameters was r = 0,98 and r = 0,99 for hulled and naked-seed group varieties respectively.
Another important parameter of grain crops was plants ability to tillering. Analysis of the experiment results showed that the difference between oats varieties by this indicator decreased with increasing of seeding rate. Statistically significant differences between the means of the coefficient of productive tillering was fixed only in variants with a minimum sowing rate (3,0 ml / ha) for hulled variety Zakat – 2,34 and naked-seeds variety Samuel - 1,89 of productive shoots per plant
It was defined the proportional increasing of productivity at the expense of the number of productive shoots occurred in the range of density from 440 to 460 of productive shoots / m2 in hulled oat and from 430 to 450 productive shoots / m2 in naked-seed oat. These figures of stands density corresponded to the range of sowing rate from 3,0 to 3,5 ml / ha (hulled oat) and from 3,0 to 4,0 ml/ha (in naked-seed oat).
The optimal number of productive shoots, which provided the highest yield (3,0 t/ha) in crops of hulled oats was 465-495 plant/m2 . These results made it possible to assume that at the rate of seeding in the range of 4,0-6,0 ml /ha hulled oat plants were not inhibited by intraspecific competition for major abiotic factors and formed the stable level of productivity.
At the base of experiment with using of density gradient we determined the actual and possible reaction level to thickening in groups of hulled and naked-seed varieties of oats. It was established the lowest difference between the number of planted seeds and the actual density of plants in the north-eastern Forest Steppe of Ukraine was observed with using of sowing rate of 4,5 ( hulled oats) and 5,0 ml/ha (naked-seed oats).

Efficiency evaluation of oat cultivation with various technology elements in the North-Eastern Forest-Steppe of Ukraine

V.I. Trotsenko, O.V. Ilchenko, V.O. Ilchenko

Last years oat is increasing importance in the world due to the balanced chemical grain composition, making it indispensable in dietary and organic products production. Gross oat production in Ukraine over the last two decades had been unreasonably declined by 1,8 times and in 2014 it was 627 thousand tons. Such unsubstantiated recession of this important culture was emerged due to insufficient consumers demand and low prices for oat grain.
The efficiency of oat grain production is increased by optimizing usage of fertilizers and bacterial treatment. Economic efficiency of oat grain production and sales was observed with high profitability for all variants of different growing technology elements applying. The profitability level was ranged from 37 to 101% depending on the profit and production cost ratio.
Among the hulled and naked oat varieties with different elements of intensive and technology the highest efficiency was achieved in naked variety Skarb of Ukraine: the income per one hectare was 4867 and 4079 uah/ha according to technology and profitability – 57,2 and 97,4%.
Intensive oat growing technology applying comparatively to ecologically-oriented, despite to significant production costs incensement and profitability reduction in varieties Skarb of Ukraine and Salomon provided additional income 788 and 192 uah/ha accordingly. Within the hulled varieties Zakat and Busol additional costs was not paid off and intensifying technology elements usage reduced income accordingly 716 and 561 uah/ha.
Variety affiliation to intensive growing technologies was identified to naked oat Skarb of Ukraine with an average yield 3,59 t/ha, Salomon -3,42 t/ha and Samuel – 3,39 t/ha with profitability 41,7-57,2%. Ecologically-oriented growing technologies affiliation was identified to hulled oat varieties Zakat with an average yield 4,11 t/ha and Busol – 4,25 t/ha with profitability - 98,1-101,0% in the contemporary economy.
The high efficiency of intensive and environmentally-oriented oat growing technology elements was defined with a high rate of energy efficiency - 2,59-3,03.

State and prospects of mustard cultivation in the world and Ukraine

A. V. Melnyk, S. V. Zherdetska

The structure of mustard seeds production in the world is divided as follows: about 500 thousand tons for culinary purposes; about 2.7 million tons for industrial purposes. The world areas under mustard range from 0.7 to 1.1 million hectars over the past decade. The highest indices of mustard productivity are in France (24 cwt / ha over the past five years ), in Germany and of Denmark - 10 cwt / ha in Hungary - 7 cwt / ha. In Ukraine mustard yielding capacity ranged from 3.3 to 9.3 cwt / ha over the past ten years. The areas in Ukraine ranged from 30.0 to 180.0 thousand hectares. More than 50-60 % of them are under yellow mustard. Compared to another species, the most popularity of yellow mustard is due top its biological and ecological characteristics – drought tolerance and ability to generate economically viable yields in areas with hard hydrothermal coefficient. The main crop cultivation areas are concentrated in the steppe and forest steppe zone. Areas of white mustard as more hydrophilous and cold-resistant are concentrated in the north-western regions of the country. However, the weather conditions of Ukraine allow to grow mustard throughout all territory, including Sumy region. There has been a tendency to increase the area under mustard in Sumy region, so in 2014 the areas under mustard were 3415 ha, which is 2000 ha more than in the previous 2012-2013.
Thus, modern changes in foreign trade activity of Ukraine stimulate the necessity of the mustard production increasing and its export. It is possible to become a world leader in the mustard production due to improving of professional potential and favorable soil and climatic conditions. According the latest trends in climate change, the need to develop high-quality technology of mustard growing for specific soil and climatic conditions appears. In modern crop rotation it increases the gross yeilds of the crop and the part of qualitative crop precursor.

The formation of structure indexes of durum spring wheat depending on type elements of technology cultivation

S.M. Kalenska, O.I. Shutyy

The high productivity of spring wheat durum can be formed only in such farmland, which in its parameters, primarily on the density of plants bushiness, ear the size of, number and mass of grains in the ear is closest to optimum. The productivity of this crop and practice wheat durum spring shows that the most not enough substantiated elements of technology is cultivation selection of sorts and substantiated system of fertilize. The formation of such indicators structure crop wheat solid spring as the amount of productive stems, productive tillering, the number and mass of grains spike per of different fertilizers and application of growth promoters. Fertilizing an insignificant effect on the rate of stand density difference between the variants was within 17-21 plants per 1 m2. Formation of productive stems of spring wheat durum elements, depending on production technologies demonstrated in a variety of in sort Kharkiv 27 with the use of fertilizers increased the number of productive stems from 311 pcs. / m2 in version control to 432 pcs. / m2 fertilized, in sort Kharkiv 41 - 339-426, Isolde - 336-427 and Giselle - 279-303 pcs. / m2. It was established that the mass of grains depends not only on the conditions development as well primarily determined by the length floral of cheshuek, which expires growth already during the earing. Extra nutrition nitrogen fertilizer, made before completion of forming floral of cheshuek, can help them increase. Later fertilizing already no effect on the size cheshuek and length grain, but grain growth contribute to full fill the space between floral cheshuek. It was established that the application of optimum norms fertilizing assists in improvement of indicators, and the highest value of are observed In case of introduction N75P75K75 + N12,5 (IV) +N12,5 (VI) and foliar processing of crops grain Rostock cereal + macro Rostock in the IV the stage of organogenesis sprout and Rostock fruiting + Rostock macro to VI stage of organogenesis

The structure and yield of coriander variety seeds depending on the sowing rates and fertilization system in cultivation in the Right-Bank Forest -Steppe of Ukraine

S. M. Kalenska, M. V. Zhovtun

This article is about the peculiarities of formation of the elements of the structure and yield of coriander seed. The structure and productivity depends on varietal characteristics, seeding rates and the level of mineral nutrition. Coriander seed yield can reach its 1.0 - 2.37 t / ha, depending on the variety, seeding seeds and fertilizers, natural resources under the conditions of northern forest-steppe Right-Bank Ukraine. The basic elements of the structure yield varieties of coriander seeds are characterized, namely: the number of umbrellas on the plant, number of seeds in the umbrella, bulk seeds with umbrellas, weight of 1000 seeds and others. Plant height coriander seeds varied depending on the variety, seeding rate and level of mineral nutrition and fluctuated on average for 2013-2014 years, from 84.1 to 104.7 cm. An important element of the structure yield is the number of seeds per plant. Number of seeds, the average for 2013-2014 years ranged within the limits 221-358 pieces depending on the crop from the test class, level of mineral nutrition and seeding rates. Found that the number umbrellas of years research on the crops ranged from 23.9 to 32.5 units. The dependences of the yield structure parameters coriander seed from these factors. Formation of yield and its structure is largely driven by climatic, edaphic and weather factors. The analysis of the formation of structure elements yield depending on the hydrothermal growth conditions coriander seeds. The results of the studies found a significant effect of weather conditions on the expression of varietal plant response coriander seeds on the basic elements of their performance. The data showed that the yield of coriander seed varieties significantly dependent on fertilization and seeding seed. According to the results of research found that the most rational norm for fertilizer grades Nectar, Oksanit and Caribe in terms of years of research have N90P40K80 by seeding 2.5 million seeds per hectare piece that promotes effective improvement in the yield structure and implementation of productivity of crops.

Aestivum spring wheat grain quality depends on sowing rates and terms

L. Karpenko, N. Novictska

Results of research on influence of terms and rates of sowing of Rannya 93 and Myronivchanka varieties of aestivum wheat on typical black soils of Right-bank Forest-Steppe of Ukraine on grain quality are given in the article. Estimation of grain quality was done in 2013-2014 at scientific laboratory of Plant Science Department in stationary crop rotation of Separate Division of NULES of Ukraine “Agronomy research station” (Pshenychne village, Vasylkiv district, Kyiv region of Ukraine). Wheat varieties were sowed in 5 different terms with 7-9 days lag. First term of sowing correspond to reaching of physical maturity of soil (in second half of April in 2013 due to late cold spring and 2 of April in 2014) and each next term in 7-9 days after previous till the mid of May. Agrotechnic in trials was usual for Northern Forest-Steppe. Spring wheat was sowed on depth of 3-5 cm and row spacing 15 cm with sowing rates ranging from 1 to 8 million viable seeds per hectare.
Basic indicators of aestivum wheat quality are content and quality of gluten, in particular no less than 14 % of protein and 28 % of crude gluten for first quality group. Obtained results stated that grain quality depends on sowing rates and on thinned or dense crops were low.
With sowing rates 1,0-2,0 and 7,0-8,0 million viable seeds per hectare content of protein in grain of aestivum wheat was no more than 12,7 % for Rannya 93and 12,9 % for Myronivchanka varieties. Average recommended sowing rates 4,0-5,0 million viable seeds per hectare provide protein content 13,1-13,5 %. Respectively content of crude gluten in grain of aestivum wheat was higher at sowing of investigated varieties with the same rates - 5, 0-6,0 million viable seeds per hectare and made up 28,8-29,5% for Rannya 93 and 28,9-29,3 % for Myronivchanka varieties.
Regarding influence of sowing terms on aestivum wheat grain quality following regularities can be marked. Protein and crude gluten content in grain of aestivum wheat with different terms of sowing essentially depends on weather conditions in years of research. Low air humidity, high temperature and soil moisture deficiency during vegetation in 2013 favors to increase of protein content compare to humid vegetation period in 2014. Higher content of protein in grain accumulated wheat with late terms of sowing despite humidity in years of research. Sowing in terms earlier than optimal leads to decrease of protein content in grain. Content of crude gluten was in tight correlation with protein. Difference between crude gluten content in grain of aestivum wheat of early and late terms of sowing was 3,8 %. Difference in crude protein content between early terms of sowing and optimal was more significant than between optimal and late terms of sowing or 2,1 and 1,7 % average respectively.

Influence of foliar application on pigments content in plants and soybean yielding capacity

А. Dzhemesyuk, N. Novictska

The results of studies on the effect of inoculation and foliar application of multicomponent chelate micronutrients and complex colloidal solution of metals nanoparticles on the biosynthesis of chlorophyll and formation of soybean yield are given in the article.
Field trials were done at separate division of NULES of Ukraine “Agronomy research station” on typical black soils of Ukrainian Forest-Steppe. Trial variants include inoculation of seeds with peat based inoculant HiStick (BASF), complex micronutrients “Intermag-soya”, “Microcat oilseed”, “Rostok legumes” and patented complex colloidal solution of metals nanoparticles (Fe, Mn, Mo, Co, Cu, Zn, Ag) on the background of mineral fertilizers application at rate N30P60K60.
It was established that the highest content of pigments sum (a+b) accumulated in leaves of plant of Annushka and Tanais varieties with application of N30P60K60, inoculation of seeds with HiStick and foliar application of micronutrients at bud formation stage. Foliar application of 7,6 of pigments sum (a+b) to 93,0 mg/100g of leaves without and 99,4 mg/100g of leaves with inoculation of seeds with HiStick that on 18,6 % higher than control and on 7,3 mg/100 g more than on variant without inoculation.
Tanais variety on variant with “Rostok legumes” micronutrient application (2 ltrs/ha) content of pigments sum (a+b) reached 110,4 mg/100 g of leaves without and 120,2 mg/100 g of leaves with inoculation of seeds with HiStick. Chlorophyll biosynthesis in soybean plants on trial variant with application of complex colloidal solution of metals nanoparticles in concentration of 240 mg/l at bud formation stage was less intensive and pigments sum (a+b) made up 89,3 mg/100 g of leaves without and 97,6 mg/100g of leaves with inoculation of seeds with HiStick for Annushka variety and 95,9 and 112,7 mg/100g of leaves respectively for Tanais variety.
Inoculation of seeds with HiStick provides additional 2-4 dct/ha soybean grain yield. Foliar application of micronutrients favors to increase yield on 10-15 %. Maximal level of yielding capacity was obtained with combination of seeds inoculation with HiStick, application of mineral fertilizers at rate N30P60K60 and foliar application of “Rostok legumes” micronutrient. Depends on rate of application of this micronutrient yield of soybean grain vary from 2,46 t/ha to 2,83 t/ha for Annushka variety and from 2,76 to 3,17 t/ha for Tanais variety. Foliar application of complex colloidal solution of metals nanoparticles in concentration of 240 mg/l at bud formation stage at the background of seeds inoculation with HiStick and mineral fertilizers application at rate N30P60K60 provide yield of soybean grain 2,61 t/ha for Annushka variety and 2,87 t/ha for Tanais variety.

Photosynthetic activities seeding of spring barley for brewing depending on the fertilizers and retardantn protection

B. Yu. Tokar

Results of research studying of the impact of norms of mineral fertilizers and retardant protection on the indicators of photosynthetic activity of crops of malting spring barley are presented. It was established that mineral fertilizers contribute to the increase of leaf surface area and photosynthetic potential. Integrated use of investigated norms of fertilization and retardant crop protection had positive effect to net productivity of photosynthesis.
As a result of our research was found that entering mineral fertilizers and processing of crops by retardants had a significantly impact on the size of assimilation apparatus of researched barley varieties.
In earing phase was recorded maximum values of leaf surfaces area researched barley varieties, after passing of this stage of ontogenesis. It tended to decrease.
In the control variants (without fertilizers and retardants) leaf surfaces area in barley plants was 45,2–47,9 thousand m2/ha, whereas on variants with fertilizing in norm N60P60K80 it was higher on 12,2–13,9 % (51,2–53,7 thousand m2/ha). The highest leaf surface area was fixed in version of fertilizing N90P90K120 – they surpassed the plots without fertilizers on 15,3–18,0 % and accounted 52,7–55,2 thousand m2/ha.
Under conditions with processing crops by retardants Hlormekvat chloride 750 the leaf surface area on control plots (without fertilizer) was at 44,8–47,0 thousand m2/ha, and at entering mineral fertilizers in norm N60P60K80 it was higher by 10,9–12,8 % and makes 50,0–53,0 thousand m2/ha. The biggest area was on variant with fertilising norms N90P90K120 and makes 51,8–54,7 thousand m2/ha, which exceeded the control variant on 12,9–16,5 %. Comparing with version of processing crops by Hlormekvat-chloride 750 with control (without retardants) must be said that the leaf surface area on it was lower on 1,5 % on average in grades and standards of fertilising.
With processing crops of barley by Terpal retardants, the assimilation surface area on plots without fertilizer reached 43,7–46,3 thousand m2/ha, whereas fertilizing in norm N60P60K80 increased it on 8,0–13,4 % and made 48,4–52,4 thousand m2/ha. In variant with fertilizing N90P90K120 leaf surface area was the highest and made 50,7–53,8 thousand m2/ha, that exceeded the version without fertilizers on 15,4–16,1 %. That is, the processing conditions of crops by Terpal, leaf surface area the average on varieties and fertilizing norms was lower by 3.5 % compared with the control. It should also be noted that in the phase of earing highest rates of leaf surface area stood out the variety Vodogray, and lowest Konserto.
Analyzing the value of photosynthetic potential of spring barley, it must be said, that its maximum level has been fixed in variants without the use of retardant protection with fertilizing in norm N90P90K120. It varied from 2.73 to 2.93 mln. m2 days/ha depending on the variety. While on variant without fertilization, this figure was on the level 1,96–2,11 mln. m2 days/ha. When applying the retardants Hlormekvat-chloride 750 and Terpal the indicator photosynthetic potential on variants with aforementioned norms of fertilising was a slightly inferior then on variant without the use of retardants. It is caused by lower leaf surface area of crops, that is connected with shortening of plant height under used of researched retardants.
So, by the amount of photosynthetic potential is largely influenced from the norms of fertilization, because they create favorable conditions for the growth and development of plants and ensure their maximum assimilation activities.
The results of calculations of net productivity of photosynthesis have shown that the nature of its change during the growing season is subordinated to certain laws, and fertilizer norms and application of retardants had a significant influence for its value. Over the years of research of spring barley varieties this indicator varied on average from 4,2 to 6,1 g/m2 per day, depending on fertilization. In variants without fertilization the net productivity of photosynthesis amounted 4,2–4,9 g/m2, while on variants with fertilization N60P60K80, it was higher by 14,9–17,4 % (5,0–5,7 g/m2). The highest values of net productivity of photosynthesis were noted at the variant of fertilization N90P90K120 – they surpassed plots without fertilizers on 20,9–24,5 % and made 5,2–6,1 g/m2.
Upon reaching by plants the earing phase took place the decrease of net productivity of photosynthesis to 3,1–5,7 g/m2 per day, which can be explained by the active development of generative organs of barley during this period. Decrease in net photosynthesis productivity was observed in all studied varieties with all versions of fertilizing norms and retardant protection. Under conditions of processing crops by Terpal the net productivity of photosynthesis in average by varieties and norms of fertilization were higher by 3.6 % compared with the control (without retardant protection) and with the variant of processing crops by Hlormekvat-chloride 750. This can be explained by positive impact of the retardants on the plant through changing the morphological parameters, which in turn, have a positive influence to the processes of formation of generative organs and qualitative changes in them.
When analyzing the net productivity of photosynthesis in the phase milky ripeness of barley must say that in variants where used retardant, as in previous periods of growth and development, value of net photosynthesis productivity were slightly higher compared with the control (without retardant protection). Thus, the indicators are differed if used the application of Terpal and they are varied from 2.3 to 2.8 g/m2 per day depending of the fertilizers norms. While on variants without retardants they made 2,1–2,4 g/m2 per day.
Based on the research, we have done the following conclusions. The magnitude of the photosynthetic potential largely influenced by the norms of fertilization, because they create favorable conditions for the growth and development of plants. So creation of optimal conditions of mineral nutrition and processing crops by retardants are significant factors that significantly affect both the formation of assimilating surface of spring barley, and also on its overall performance too. Summarizing the above, we can say that the improving of mineral nutrition of spring barley by fertilization and fertilizing in norms N60P60K80 and N90P90K120 with use the retardants in conditions of Right-bank steppes of Ukraine are the most effective way of improving the photosynthetic activity of crops, which in turn have a positive affects for its productivity.

The stress development of chickpea plant and active of the immune response of antioxidative enzymes for the preseeding treatment of seeds

L. N. Gonchar, E. N. Scherbakova, K. А. Laukert

The article contains results of scientific research the immune response plant of chickpea to the action of abiotic and biotic stressors in the conditions of Right-Bank Forest Steppe of Ukraine depending on investigated factors. Was determined the contents of malonic dialdehyde (MDA), the activity of lipid peroxidation (LPO), super oxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and peroxidase in plants of chickpea for preseeding processing of seeds. Is established a direct impact preseeding processing of seeds on the anti- and prooxidative system plants of chickpea and detection, regularities of manifestation its activity in the soil-climatic growing conditions.
Our research found that the variants with application preseeding processing of seeds nodulating by bacteria and colloidal solution of molybdenum deduce a cage into a state of balance, with no leaps activity of lipid peroxidation and enzymatic active is on the level respectively for maintaining balance. Established that lipid peroxidation in cells is maintained at a stable level thanks to multilevel antioxidant protection system. Thus, the balance between the two parts this system - peroxidation on the one hand and on the other antioxidant is a prerequisite for maintaining the normal functioning of cells. The influence of preseeding treatment of seeds on the immune response to the action chickpea of plants oxide stress conditions in the conditions of Right-Bank Forest Steppe of Ukraine. Using the preseeding processing colloidal solutions of molybdenum and nodulating bacteria decreased the formation of peroxidation products at 55-57% in sort on Roseanne and 50-52% in sort Triumph of the over using traditional inoculation nodulating bacteria. On the basis of data we can conclude that one of the physiological-biochemical mechanisms that determine the viability of the plant, is antioxidant activity and oxidative processes. Stress conditions favor the activation of free radical processes and lipid peroxidation, leading to reduced plant health. Processing of seeds colloidal solutions of molybdenum and nodulating bacteria increases plant resistance to adverse conditions by activating enzymes of antioxidant protection.

The peculiarities of fertilizing of grain sorghum under the conditions of north-east part of Forest-Steppe of Ukraine

Z. I. Hlupak, M. V. Radchenko

The conducted researches showed that up to the end of vegetation standing density of plants was different, depending on the background of chemical nutrition. Thus, under the variant of control on 1 m.l. there were 3,5 plants. Converting on 1 hectare it was 77,1 thousands of items per hectare. In addition to that the amount of stalks on the one plant was 2,9 items or 220,5 thousands of items per hectare. On the background of chemical fertilizers application N45Р45К45 standing density of plants increased to 86,9 thousands of items per hectare and the amount of productive stalks increased to 297,2 thousands of items per hectare. The largest amount of plants (91,8 thousands of items per hectare) and productive stalks (388,2 thousands of items per hectare) was noticed in the variant of full chemical nutrition.
The increase of fertilizers norm favoured to the growth of plants height in comparison with non-fertilized plot. The height of plants in the variant of control was 127 cm. The application of fertilizers in the dose of N45Р45К45 contributed to the growth of plants height on 3 cm. The highest plants were those on the variant of chemical nutrition in the dose of N60Р60К60 – 136 cm.
The observation showed that fertilization had a great influence on the development of productive bodies of sorghum, in particular on the mass of 1 panicle, mass of panicle from the plant. Thus, the smallest mass of panicle was on the control – 63,7 gram, the application of chemical fertilizers led to the increase of this index, especially while applying N45Р45К45 – till 71,4 and N60Р60 К60 – 79,6 gram.
Observing the change of panicle mass of 1 plant one can mention that there is a direct connection between the gain in panicle mass from the 1 plant and the increase of the norm of chemical fertilizers. The smallest mass of panicle on 1 plant was observed on the control of 182,2 gram, that is more on 34, and 84,8 % in comparison with the variants of chemical fertilizers norm N45Р45К45, N60Р60К60, accordingly.
The norm of chemical fertilizers N60Р60К60 had the greatest influence on the mass of 1000 grains among all elements of nutrition. The application of chemical fertilizers under the norm of N45Р45К45 raised the mass of 1000 grains on 8,6 % in comparison with the variant without fertilizers. It was maximal in the plants on the variants where was N60Р60К60 applied and it was 52,4 gram accordingly.
The crop capacity level of grain of sorghum increases greatly under the influence of fertilizers application and depends on the norm of applying. Describing the crop capacity of grain sorghum in the research it should be mentioned that in the variants with applying of N45Р45К45 under the grain sorghum in comparison with the control (5,4 ton per hectare) the crop capacity raised on 0,8 ton per hectare, or 14,8 %. In the variant with applying of N60Р60К60 under sorghum it was got the increment of crop capacity 1,4 ton per hectare (26,0 %).

Comparative efficiency of grades of a winter wheat in the conditions of the Velykapysarivka district of Sumy region

G. A. Davidenko, N. K. Senchenko

Winter wheat is the leading cereal crop in agricultural production of Ukraine, the basic crops are concentrated in the Steppe and Forest-steppe zones, where its specific weight in the structure of grain crops reaches almost 50 %. Through the use of modern technologies of cultivation, it ranks first as the planting acreage and yield. Therefore, the problem of increasing the efficiency of production of this crop is one of the main tasks of agricultural science.
In 2010 in Ukraine more than 260 varieties and hybrids of grain crops of the Ukrainian selection were used. Among the earlier varieties of more acreage in Ukraine was occupied by varieties of winter wheat Myronіvs'ka 65, Odesska 51, Polisska 70.
To obtain good yields it is necessary to create varieties and hybrids with high yield and good grain quality, resistant to lodging and diseases. This requires a radical improvement of selection work.
The aim of the research was to determine the productivity of new varieties of winter wheat. To achieve this goal was the dependence of growth, development and yield formation of winter wheat grain and its quality from varietal characteristics.
Our research productivity and quality of winter wheat varieties in conditions Velikopisarevsky district of Sumy region allowed us to draw the following conclusions:
1. The yield of winter wheat varieties depends the most from such elements of its structure, as the number of plants remaining at harvest and grain mass of a single spike.
2. The best varieties on farm on average for 2013-2014 were Zolotokolosa and Snizhana. Indicators of yield exceeded the control (cultivar Myronіvs'ka 65), respectively, 16,3 c/hectares and 14,8 c/hectares.
3. Milling and baking quality of grain varieties Myronіvs'ka 65 complies with the requirements of class V of the standard, varieties of the Stolychna and Lybid – IV class, and varieties of Zolotokolosa and Snezhana – class III.
The best varieties on farm on average for 2013-2014 were Zolotokolosa and Snizhana, so we recommend these varieties to grow at the farm in Velikopisarevsky district of Sumy region.

Repeat flowering fruit plants and its causes

V. Lyakh

The purpose of the article is highlighting the research results of repeat of flowering apple trees depending on the weather of the year.
Source material, method and conditions of the study. The object of the research is the process of re-blooming apple varieties Calleville snow. The study was conducted during 2013-2014 years in the orchard Sumy State Pedagogical University named by Makarenko. Research was conducted by the Institute of Horticulture methods.
Deviations from the passage of phenological phases was observed on rare varieties of apple trees of snow Calleville. Some trees stopped strong growth of shoots in the third week of July. Stop of the growth processes associated with deficiency of moisture in the soil and air temperatures increased compared with the average long-term. Stressful conditions in July, August 2014 resulted in accelerated differentiation of flower buds. Favorable condition weather on September - rainfall and higher temperatures - contributed to their awakening. Next rainfall caused early a second wave of growth of shoots and wake generative buds in the second decade of September. In rare trees 15.09-25.09 2014 we saw the re-flowering apple. In the inflorescence were 2 to 5 flowers. But they were smaller and had an unusual shape for the variety. Flowers had well-formed and developed pistil and stamens. The processes of pollination and fertilization also occurred. Phase fruit growth observed 1.10 and lasted until 20.10, but the fruits are not typical for this sort of shapes and sizes.
Conclusions. The dependence of occurrence of phenological phases and interphase periods in passing the apple on the weather of the year, the impact of stressful weather conditions for passing generative buds differentiation and re-blooming apple trees were proved.

Yield and stability of yield parameters of spring rape depending on plant morphotypes

V. A. Tyutyunnyk, G. O. Zhatova

The optimum seeding rates of spring rape genotypes with different intensity of branching stems depending on rates and ways of fertilization were determined. Indicators of flexibility and stability of yield parameters of plants with different seeding rates were calculated. It was established that genotypes with low intensity of branching stems required correction of seeding rate in case of changing doses and methods of fertilization. Stability of optimal values of seeding rates in genotypes with high intensity of branching is provided by plasticity of number seeds index.
Yield crops can be regulate by changing of planting rate density as well as change of values of average plant productivity. In fact, the range of possible values of density that ensure maximum productivity is quite narrow and often specific for individual genotypes and vegetation conditions. Optimization of this indicator in case of changing the conditions of growth, introduction of new varieties or technology elements are important direction of research and an important element in increasing crop productivity. This situation requires the systematic research on crops or varieties with the wide range of seeding rates owing to morphological structure of plants, ways of harvest use or specific environmental factors. The most convenient object for such research is spring rape crop which characterized with one of the broadest ranges of seeding rates. The difference in the values of this index depends on genetically determined ability of rape genotype for stems branching
Previous analysis methods showed that the most efficient for the task can be characteristic of genotypes for the indexes of plasticity and stability of yield parameters of individual plants.
Research was carried out in Sumy NAU during 2007–2011. In the article the research results with genotypes which significantly differed in their ability to form harvest on the side branches - Oksamyt variety (with low intensity of branching stems) and hybrid PR-45H72 (with high intensity of branching stems) were used. It was found that in Oksamyt variety (with the low ability to side branching) the highest yield under different conditions of mineral nutrition was provided by different seeding rates. On the contrary, in hybrid PR -45H72 the highest yield at different doses and ways of mineral fertilizers was provided by seeding rates of 0.8 million / ha. The reason for changing ranks variants with different seed rate in Oksamyt variety and their stability in hybrid PR- 45H72, was the different level of plasticity index number of seeds. Another indicator, namely the mass 1000 seeds in both genotypes had the similar level of plasticity. This dynamic parameters indicated that genotypes with low intensity of branching stems required of seed rate correlation in case of changing rates and ways of fertilization. Stability of optimal seeding rates for genotypes with high intensity of branching stems was provided by flexibility of number seeds index.

Salicylic acid – ecological factor for improvement of defense reaction of cereals

O. I. Borzykh

Phytopathological counts infestation of plants was carried out in accordance with conventional method. Biochemical parameters peroxidase activity was obtained by iodometric method Mihlis and Bronovitskiy.
Treatment of vegetative plants crops field on prognosis of disease, at the beginning of the first symptoms of lesion also showed relatively high technical efficiency of salicylic acid, which significantly contributed to increase plant resistance to major diseases.
We know that many phenolic compounds play an important role in regulating a variety of physiological processes, including growth and development of plants, photosynthesis and ion exchange. Phenolic compounds produced by plant roots inessential processes of germination and subsequent plant growth. Phytoindication of physiological effect of salicylic acid was firstly discovered during flowering and bud formation in vitro of tobacco. The stimulating effect of salicylic acid on flowering was later shown in other types of plants that confirmed the role of salicylic acid as an endogenous regulator of flowering. The effectiveness of salicylic acid nonspecific and promotes flowering process together with other regulators such as gibberellins. We conducted performance record crops only confirmed the ability of salicylic acid to stimulate their performance.
The effect of salicylic acid on the expression of defense reactions of plants of winter wheat, spring wheat, winter barley, spring barley, winter rye was investigated. The results show that prophylactic application of salicylic acid on cereals with rate 0,38-0,42 kg/ha helped to reduce severity of the main diseases (septoria leaf blotch, powdery mildew) and favored an increase in productivity.