Series of Veterinary medicine, 2015, Vol. 7 (37) (en)

Influence of different sources b-carotene on the clinical state and hematological indexes of laboratory animals

 Shevchenko L., Zakharenko N., Mykhalska V., Poljakovskij V., Maljuga L.

The production of high-quality and ecologically safe goods of stock-raising is based on the use in feeding of animals of far biologically active forage additions, including oligoelementss, antioxidants, hepatoprotectors, vitamins and their predecessors with the purpose of prophylaxis of illnesses, stimulation of growth and development, improvement of quality and commodity type of the prepared products. To such preparations carotene of biotechnological synthesis belongs also. Among perspective sources β-carotene in a stock-raising native and disintegrated with the use an ultrasound biomass of mushroom of Bl. trispora culture of TKST (vitaton).
The use of different sources of β-carotene (vitaton) in growing animals involves intakes not only natural β-carotene, but other biologically active substances, including vitamins of group E, B, amino acids, high in saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, and also varying degrees of accessibility to the body after ultrasonic disintegration of biomass. This multicomponent chemical composition of β-carotene preparations that are biomass fungus Bl. Trispora culture of TKST, determines their influence on clinical state and morphological indexes of blood of animals.
Use of preparations of biomass of fungus of Bl. trispora culture of TKST for providing of necessity animals of β-carotene foresees the study of them sanitary safety for an organism on the indexes of the clinical state and nonspecific resistance. Thus a necessary condition is determination of biological availability β-carotene from his preparations for laboratory animals, namely: native fungal biomass of Bl. trispora, disintegrated biomass fungus Bl. trispora by ultrasonic treatment and oily solution synthetic β-carotene.
As results of researches of introduction the laboratory white rats of per os of oily suspension of biomass of fungus of Bl. trispora in a native form (experimental group number 1), and also after its disintegration (experimental group number 2) caused the insignificant changes of their temperature of body, which was within the limits of sizes of physiology norm. Introduction the laboratory rats of per os of oily solution synthetic β-carotene (experimental group number 3) did not influence on the temperature of body by comparison to control.
Introduction the laboratory white rats of oily suspensions of native biomass of fungus, and also synthetic β-carotene during 60 days does not influence on indexes them the clinical state and body weight, while the disintegrated biomass fungus Bl. trispora causes for rats the increase of frequency of respiratory motions in middle on a 21 respiratory movement/min.
It is set that introduction the laboratory white rats of native biomass of fungus of Bl. trispora does not cause the changes leykoform of blood, while in blood of rats at introduction of oily solution synthetic β-carotene and biomass of fungus of Bl. trispora after disintegrated there are accordingly an insignificant relative neutropenia and lymphocytopenia.

Biomorphology of the wolf’ skull

Melnyk O., Lutsenko P.

The paper described the structure of the skull of the wolf in detail and drew on its morphometric analysis. The material for our research served 25 copies skulls of wolves in nature extracted in Ukraine. Skull wolf massive skulovoy arc wide apart. Face department of brain longer. In adults characterized by highly developed sagittal crest. The frontal part of the skull is convex with relatively large cavities. Teeth large and strong. Fangs powerful, slightly curved and relatively short. Carnassial well defined. Cutting edge cutters triangular, as is a small additional performances.
As a result of studies the structural features of the skull of the wolf are found, and it was determined that the length of the bone in the mouth of wolves is actually half of the total length of the skull (38.0% and 38.9%)
The length of the bone palate of a wolf is actually half the total length of the skull (49.7%)..
The width of the skull at the zygomatic arches relative to its overall length is quite significant (81.4%).The total length of the mandible is only 20 % less than the total length of the skull, and the length of the sagittal crest is 33 % of the total length of the skull. Maximum width of the skull of a wolf is at the zygomatic arches.

The daily dynamics of the use of the breast tissue of cows of Calcium in colostricperiod of lactation

Plyuta L.V.

Milk – a complex chemical secret of the breast, is a system of polydisperse substances.
Milk formation process includes active and passive transport of water and inorganic components through cell membranes. The components of milk can be moved in the opposite direction reabsorbtion s with breast cancer in the blood. For the formation of milk used nutrients delivered to the udder with blood.
For the formation of milk used nutrients delivered to the udder with blood. In turn, the blood nutrients coming from the digestive system. With arterio-venous difference has established a number of learning patterns in breast milk precursor synthesis components regardless of availability of animal body nutrients.
Studies indicate that the use of Calcium breast tissue for days in first lactation had a certain dynamic.
The article was reviewed daily dynamics of use of the breast tissue of cows of Calcium in colostric period of lactation. For the period from the first to the second milking the breast tissue absorbed with blood flowed an average of 0,35±0,070 mmol/l, or 13,26 % Calcium.
On average, from the second to the third milking the breast tissue absorbed 9,51 % Calcium, that in 1,39 times less (p<0,01) than during the time from the first to the second milking. During the time from the third to the first milking, the use of Calcium in the breast tissue averaged 9,69%, that in 1,36 times less (p<0,01) than after the first milking.
On average, per day, for the first period of lactation cows breast tissue using 11,07 % Calcium.
In the future research in this direction will allow to identify the evolution of the use of the breast tissue of cows osmotically-active substances in the production environment with the aim of increasing milk production.

Effect of milk yield of ewes on the growth and development of the lambs

Pikhtireva A.V.

The paper presents the analysis of the literature data regarding the impact of milk production of ewes different species on the growth and development of the lambs.
Sheep milk yield and composition of milk depends not only on breed and feeding conditions for animals, but also of lactation, season and age ewes born lambs.
It's revealed that milk productivity of sheep is of great practical importance in growing lambs. Newborn lambs, ewes milk is the first and the only food in this period of their lives. Availability lambs breast milk in the first weeks after birth shown on their health behavior, precocity, future viability and productivity of milk necessary even when the lamb goes to feed others.
Research many authors conducted on different breeds of sheep, set high positive correlation between milk yield of sows during the first month of lactation and growth rate of offspring (r = + 0,8- + 0,9). By the end of lactation correlation value decreases. Thus, at the 3rd month of lactation correlation value is +4.5, and the lambs weaning +0.2 and less than.
For a focused growing lambs important factor is the selection of sheep for milk production. Milking ewes increases with age and reaches its maximum in animals to the age of six, and there is a gradual decrease in yields.
For a focused growing lambs important factor is the selection of sheep for milk production. Milking ewes increases with age and reaches its maximum in animals to the age of six, and there is a gradual decrease in yields.
It is known that dairy sheep has a significant effect on the intensity of growth and development of the lambs, which manifests itself not only in the suckling period, but in the future of life and performance of lambs. Found that the use of advanced technologies for growing sheep, careful control of the parameters of their play, the choice of breed and the right way of feeding and also the animals will reach 50-60 % of profitability of production, and in the best farms in Ukraine, this figure could reach even 100 %. However, sheep are most effective when used all kinds of sheep productivity.

Dynamics of area of lymphoid formations of the thin sections of the intestine for piglets during a post-natal morphogeny

Samoylyuk V.V.

The paper presents the analysis of the literature data regarding the impact of milk production of ewes different species on the growth and development of the lambs.
Sheep milk yield and composition of milk depends not only on breed and feeding conditions for animals, but also of lactation, season and age ewes born lambs.
It's revealed that milk productivity of sheep is of great practical importance in growing lambs. Newborn lambs, ewes milk is the first and the only food in this period of their lives. Availability lambs breast milk in the first weeks after birth shown on their health behavior, precocity, future viability and productivity of milk necessary even when the lamb goes to feed others.
Research many authors conducted on different breeds of sheep, set high positive correlation between milk yield of sows during the first month of lactation and growth rate of offspring (r = + 0,8- + 0,9). By the end of lactation correlation value decreases. Thus, at the 3rd month of lactation correlation value is +4.5, and the lambs weaning +0.2 and less than.
For a focused growing lambs important factor is the selection of sheep for milk production. Milking ewes increases with age and reaches its maximum in animals to the age of six, and there is a gradual decrease in yields.
For a focused growing lambs important factor is the selection of sheep for milk production. Milking ewes increases with age and reaches its maximum in animals to the age of six, and there is a gradual decrease in yields.
It is known that dairy sheep has a significant effect on the intensity of growth and development of the lambs, which manifests itself not only in the suckling period, but in the future of life and performance of lambs. Found that the use of advanced technologies for growing sheep, careful control of the parameters of their play, the choice of breed and the right way of feeding and also the animals will reach 50-60 % of profitability of production, and in the best farms in Ukraine, this figure could reach even 100 %. However, sheep are most effective when used all kinds of sheep productivity.

Morphological and biochemical composition of aortic and venous blood of cows before and after calving

Grischuk G.P.

Blood tests give grounds to explore the possible changes in the whole organism and in a certain way to confirm the final diagnosis, to prescribe effective treatment, to monitor the progress and to predict the end of the disease, and to objectively evaluate the pathogenesis of the disease causing infertility.
In our study morphological and biochemical composition of venous and aortic blood of cows before and after calving are revealed. Morphological and biochemical composition of aortic blood of cows before calving differed from venous according to the following criteria: ortalli blood was greater than the number of red blood cells, inorganic phosphorus, total protein, globulin, total bilirubin, urea and was higher than the activity of enzymes: Alt, AST, LDH, alkaline phosphatase and less albumin and cholesterol.
After calving investigated morphological and biochemical composition of aortic blood on the majority of indicators was also higher than venous contents: total protein, albumin, total bilirubin, creatinine, urea; the activity of ALAT, ASAT, LDH, alkaline phosphatase. Less than in venous blood, ortalli contained leukocytes, glucose, globulin and cholesterol.
We have not identified differences in content in ortalli and venous blood prior to calving hemoglobin, leukocytes, glucose, total calcium, creatinine, cholesterol and triglycerides, and after calving (erythrocytes, hemoglobin, total calcium, inorganic phosphorus and triglycerides.
It is established that morphological and biochemical composition of aortic blood of cows before calving was higher than after calving for hemoglobin, glucose, inorganic phosphorus, total protein, globulin and creatinine. Less ortalli blood before calving contained erythrocytes and leukocytes, albumin, total bilirubin, Alt, AST, LDH and alkaline phosphatase.
Found no significant difference in content in ortalli blood before calving and after calcium, urea, cholesterol and triglycerides. Studies give reason to say that most of the studied parameters in ortalli blood is higher than in venous, but not beyond physiological limits. Identified differences in morphological and biochemical composition of the aortic and venous blood can be explained by the peculiarities of their function and physiology.
The same level in ortalli and venous blood of cows before and after calving, the number of leukocytes, hemoglobin, glucose, total calcium, creatinine and triglycerides, and in ortalli more and urea and cholesterol, can be regarded as an indicator that ensures homeostasis of the aortic and venous blood.
The lowest level in ortalli blood before calving, number of erythrocytes, leukocytes and albumin due to their involvement in ensuring the viability of the fetus before birth, and the content of total bilirubin and informative activity of enzymes because they enter the blood products of metabolism in the process of calving. The decrease in ortalli blood after calving hemoglobin, glucose, inorganic phosphorus, total protein, globulin and creatinine justified their participation in biochemical processes, providing course calving.

Features physiological condition of cows in the dry period

Duda Y.V., Syedykh N.Y., Gryban V.G.

Most important for the fetus is the last months of pregnancy, so the study of the characteristics of cows’ physiological state is carried out during this period. It is possible to identify ways and directions of targeting the physiological condition of cows for its correction.
The aim of this work was to study the characteristics of the physiological state of the cows of Holstein breed in the dynamics of dry period (from 8- to 9-th month of pregnancy). The decrease of protein metabolism indexes in the blood serum of cows of 2-3 gestation was revealed (decrease in total protein in serum from 87,25±1,20 to 81,60±1,20 g/l, including globulin fraction – from 51,96±2,08 to 43,75±2,07 g/l). The activity of aspartate aminotransferase increased as waves at the end of pregnancy and in the middle of the dry period (8,5 months) in 1,3 times. The carotene content in the blood serum significantly increased in the middle of pregnancy (at the 8th month of pregnancy carotene content was 0,39±0,05 mM/І, and at the 9th – 0,55±0,05 mM/l, that is increased by 40 %). During the dry period the calcium level in the blood serum of cows decreased by 1,14 times, due to the intensive development of the fetus and the formation of the skeleton. It is also correlate with the significant increase in the activity of alkaline phosphatase (in 1,29 times), physiological role of which is reduced to participate in calcification and mineralization of bone tissue.
The number of segmented neutrophils before the calving of cows in creased in 1,15 times, while the bandneutrophils – 1,86 times. It was observed the redistribution of neutrophil cellsto the right. However, the number of white bloodcell sin the middry period in creased by 1,35 times, while remaining with in the physiological norm. It was observed a modestin creasein еrythrocytes edimentation rate.
Feature srevealed during the dry period associated with the formation of the fetus and the preparations for the formation of colostrum in the breast, can help tojustify the way sofcorrection of physiological state of pregnant cows in preparation for child birth.

Structural and functional features of formation and remodulation of bone organs of newborn mammals

Krishtoforova B., Stegney Zh.

Bony organs of the axial skeleton and skeleton of limbs of newborn calves, piglets and puppies were investigated, using a complex of morphological methods. Bony organs of newborn period mammals are formed with rough fibrose spongy and compact bone tissue and bone marrow. In the process of osteogenesis, they have enhodral and endesmal origin. The structure of spongy and compact rough fibrose bone tissue has general biological patterns and properties, which are caused by biological maturity, features of fetal osteogenesis and position of bone organ, which depends on the biomechanical load, genetically determined in the phylogeny.
Researches of bone organs of newborn animals, conducted on different levels of structural organization, show, that osteogenesis of newborn day mammals in the greatest degree is developed in the femoris bone, less - in ribs and the least - in a chest.
Structural and functional features of primary spongy bone tissue suggest, that its formation takes place at the same time with its destruction. With enhondralniy osteogenesis primary spongy bone tissue is formed, on its trabeculae secondary spongy bone tissue is remodulated, bone-brain cells of which are filled with red bone marrow with sinusoidal blood capillaries.
Compact bone tissue of diaphysis of tubular bones is formed with endesmalniy osteogenesis, and between the bone plates remnants of the connective tissue appear. In bone ribs compact bone tissue is remodulated by trabeculae of secondary spongy bone tissue and also by endesmalniy osteogenesis. Compact bone tissue of chest of newborn mammals is formed with endesmalniy osteogenesis in the form of 1-2 plates, that are on the periphery of the secondary spongy bone tissue. Red bone marrow is contained in the cells of secondary spongy tissue, remodulated with enhondralniy osteogenesis.

Morphogenesis of the Peyer’s patch of the duck duodenum at the age of 150-240 days

Mazurkevych T.A.

Detailed study of the morphology, physiology and biochemistry of the alimentary canal poultry gained particular relevance for today. Knowledge of patterns of development, both of which directly support the body's metabolism, is a biological basis for developing a full feeding and raising the productive qualities of these animals. Information about the growth and development of the alimentary canal birds mainly dealing with chickens. Information about the growth and development of the intestine of ducks is insufficient.
The material for the research selected by 66 heads of broiler ducks of Blahovarsky cross the age of 150, 180, 210 and 240 days. The common methods for morphological studies have used in the researches.
Only one Peyer’s patch is defined in a duck duodenum. It has the shape of a cone, the base of which is directed to the muscular stomach (ventriculus, gizzard). Its length and largest width decreased with age of the birds (respectively, 150 daily ducks – 2,40 ± 0,06 and 1,20 ± 0,03 cm, 240 daily – 1,50 ± 0,05 and 0, 80 ± 0,04 cm).
The wall of the intestine in the Peyer’s patch location has the same structure as in other areas. It is formed by tunica mucosa, tunica muscularis and tunica serosa. The area occupied by the tunica mucosa in the Peyer’s patch localization is the largest and it decreases with age of ducks. The areas of the tunica muscularis and tunica serosa are much less such tunica mucosa. The tunica muscularis area increases and the tunica serosa area decreases with age of ducks. Lymphoid tissue, which forms the functional basis of Peyer’s patch, located in the lamina propria mucosae and tela submucosa and in the tunica muscularis. Its content remained almost at the same level in the studied age groups of ducks (in 150-day – 64,49 ± 1,23, 180-day – 64,59 ± 2,40, 210-day – 64,63 ± 1,28, 240-day – 64,37 ± 0,58%). Lymphoid tissue of tunica mucosa represented only by diffuse form and secondary lymphoid nodules. Content of diffuse lymphoid tissue far outstrips content of secondary lymphoid nodules. It is 83,31 ± 0,86% in 150-day ducks and increased to 93,00 ± 0,94% in 240-day birds. Content of secondary lymphoid nodules in lymphoid tissue of tunica mucosa decreases with age of ducks (in 150-day – 16,69 ± 0,86%, to 240-day – 7,00 ± 0,94%).
Lymphoid tissue localized between bundles of smooth muscle cells in the tunica muscularis. Its content decreases with age of ducks (in 150-day – 44,90 ± 0,33%, to 240-day – 22,22 ± 1,65%). Lymphoid tissue is represented only secondary lymphoid nodules in ducks of studied age groups.

The role of the liver in the processes of pigment metabolism in pigs with different types of higher nervous activity

Landsman A.A., Karpovskiy P.V., Karpovskiy V.V., Skripkina V.M., Postoy R.V.,Karpovskiy V.I., Trokoz V.O., Kryvoruchko D.I.

This article describes the results of a study the range of total and direct bilirubin in the blood serum of sows with different types of higher nervous activity. In this researches were investigated the sows at the age of 3 years old. We established that the highest level of total bilirubin was in group of strong balanced movable type and this result had a tendency of excess of its relatively strong balanced inert and strong unbalanced type. We also observed a significant difference from the pigs of the weak type, which had the lowest level of total serum bilirubin. We have obtained the similar results on the influence of strength, balance and mobility of the process of excitation and inhibition on the pigments metabolism when we have researched the range of direct bilirubin in blood serum.
We found that the highest level of direct bilirubin had sows with strong balanced movable type of nervous activity and the lowest had pigs in group of weak type. An intermediate position in our researches was occupied the results from pigs with strong balanced inert and strong unbalanced types. The difference between the total and direct bilirubin was named like the value of indirect bilirubin in the blood serum. The ratio of indirect and direct bilirubin does not go beyond the physiological norm and ranged from 22:78 (in groups of strong balanced movable and strong unbalanced types) to 25:75 (pigs of weak type). Data correlation analysis confirmed the dependency of the parameters that we researched of the influence of expression of the essential characteristics of the cortical nervous processes in pigs. It is well known that the conversion of bilirubin occurs only in the liver so we can conclude that the intensity of this process depends of the type of higher nervous activity in sows too.

Catalase and superoxide dismutase activity in red blood cells pigs of different types of НNА on technological stress

Danchuk О.V.

Studies have shown that in terms of relative calm in animals strong types of HNA significant difference in the activity of SOD and catalase in erythrocytes of pigs available, but traced a clear trend of higher catalytic activity of enzymes in animal with SBM type of HNA.
Accessories pigs to action stressor (transfer to summer camp with considerable fluctuations in temperature during the day (+24 ... + 4) and rearrangement) is accompanied by stress adaptation mechanisms. As a result of the transition to another level of metabolism in cells increases the formation of reactive oxygen, including superoxide radical cleared of SOD formation of H2O2 its subsequent splitting of catalase to O2 and H2O. Regardless of the typological features of HNA found reduced activity of catalase (by 8-16 % r≤0,05-0,01) and SOD (by 18-21 % r≤0,001) during the day. Moreover, animals of the weak type of HNA decreased activity of enzymes expressed to a greater extent.
As a result of adaptation to changing conditions of pigs being 5 days after the transfer in the summer camp and regrouping research groups is increased activity of enzymes SAZ in animal with strong types of HNA.
Displaying activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase in erythrocyte pigs of different types of higher nervous activity for the actions of technological stress. Technological stress (translated to summer camp, rearrangement) is accompanied by decreased activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase in erythrocytes of pigs. Pets strong НNА types are characterized by high activity of enzymatic antioxidant defense system in contrast to the animals of the weak type of higher nervous activity.
The activity of AOP enzyme systems in pigs strong types of HNA does not differ significantly, and during the first days after exposure to stressors is somewhat reduced. Pigs with weak type of HNA characterized by low activity of enzymatic antioxidant defense system.
Prospects for further research are to develop new methods of prevention and correction of stressful conditions farm animals taking into account the types of higher nervous activity.

The role of Zn, Mn, Co in bodies of farm animals

Mykytyn S., Yatsenko I., Binkevych V.

It is known that metabolic processes at the cellular and subcellular levels provided about 2,000 functioning enzymes, each of which catalyzes the corresponding chemical reaction. In turn, the catalytic activity of enzymes coenzymes provided by non-protein origin - organic or inorganic compounds of elements (metal ions - macro- and micronutrients). Thus, trace elements are essential catalysts of metabolic processes and play an important role in adaptation in normal conditions and in pathology. Despite the fact that minerals have energy values of fats, carbohydrates and proteins, many enzymatic processes in the body are not possible without the participation of certain elements.
Mineral elements in animals (and humans too) play an important role. They are necessary for normal functioning of various organs, growth and development of the body, involved in maintaining osmotic pressure, they help to maintain the necessary concentration of ions, are part of various biological agents living organism, hormones, vitamins, proteins, enzymes, etc. They are involved in activation of chemical reactions by acting on the enzyme systems directly or indirectly influence the function of the endocrine glands and perform many vital functions in the body that have not yet explored all.
The best content and value of biotic elements in animals causes the normal course of metabolic processes, the well-being of their health and performance. With a lack, excess or imbalance of trace elements in humans and animals having a disease called microelementoz.All mineral elements, depending on their biological role can be divided into essential (nutrients, biotic, essential); and conditionally essential elements of the unclear role. The group of essential elements include iron, copper, zinc, manganese and cobalt. Minerals come in animals with food and water. The lack of it in the diet causes metabolic disease and death of animals. Minerals are continuously ingested as they are excreted with urine, feces, sweat, and in lactating animals - and with milk. So, along with balancing rations for essential nutrients, special attention should be paid to the content of trace elements in the body functions are very diverse. The basis of biological activity trace is the chemical structure of compounds as they are introduced into the body of the animal feed.

Copper – an important component of physiological processes in the sheep organism

Mykytyn S., Yatsenko I., Binkevych V.

The article summarized the available data in the literature about the importance of copper as one of the essential trace elements necessary for normal functioning of sheep and important component of mineral nutrition of sheep. We described the role of copper in various metabolic processes, diseases that occur due to lack or excess copper in the body need sheep in this trace element and its importance for improving animal productivity and improve the quality of their products.
Sheep for versatility performance ranks first among farm animals. They supply with wool, meat, sheepskin, milk. Of great importance in sheep has not only high general level of nutrition, but also balanced rations for mineral elements. The organization valuable mineral nutrients are important minerals.
One of the essential micronutrient required for normal sheep include copper, because it is an important component of mineral nutrition and has a broad spectrum of activity in most of the processes that take place in animals. Copper is necessary for normal pigmentation and ceratinisation of wool, bones, formation of nervous tissue, reproductive functions. Copper stimulates immune protection in primary and secondary response is involved in the process of erythropoiesis, heme synthesis, promotes iron absorption in the digestive tract and its mobilization of tissue is part of many enzymes and inhibits the activity of alkaline phosphatase, amylase, lipazypepsin. It is noted as a positive effect of copper on carbohydrate metabolism. Promotes accumulation of copper in the liver. The main function of copper in the body should be considered his participation in the processes of tissue respiration. Copper ions are involved in the process of transport of amino acids and thus affect the rate of protein metabolism. Copper stimulates the excretion of nitrogen from the body, thus increasing the breakdown of proteins in tissues. Copper is necessary for the formation of bone marrow as involved in complex biochemical processes occurring in areas of bone damage in the process of regeneration. Also involved in the biosynthesis of hemoglobin, elastin, catalase, peroxidase. Experimentally it is proved that copper prevents oxidative stress and energy. Also getting feeds from metal compounds such as copper, animals acquire resistance to infection of the skin and mucous membranes of the gastrointestinal tract and respiratory tract.

Some indicators of mineral and lipid metabolism in broiler chickens 33-day-old using the drug Dekavit

Melnyk A.

Practice shows, the standard treatment regimen of birds metabolic disorders are ineffective because they do not take into account the species and breed characteristics of the organism, the degree of destruction of individual organs and systems.
The article presents data on the effect of vitamin preparations Dekavit on lipid and mineral metabolism in broiler chickens cross Sobb-500 obtained in research and production tested in the scientific-educational and research center Bilotserkivskyi National Agrarian University.
On 33 day of experiment Dekavitu in dose 1 ml/l of water makroelement exchange characterized by increasing content of inorganic phosphorus on 15,3 % (2,08±0,10 mmol/l), in dose of 2 ml/l of water – 16,5 % (2,11±0,09 mmol/l). Probability of such changes confirmed by a decrease in 1,87 times isoenzyme activity of intestinal alkaline phosphatase – 13,3±1,10 U/l opposite 24,9±4,12 in birds of control group.
Lipid metabolism under the influence of the drug Dekavit characterized by a decrease of total lipids just a dose of 2 ml/l of water (- 19,3 %; 3,95±0,19 g/l), while the concentration of cholesterol significantly decreased in both experimental groups: the first at 8,73 (3,24±0,07 mmol/l) and the second – 11,2 % (3,15±0,11 mmol/l).
The results of research on the impact of drug dose-dependent Dekavit showed a positive effect on his exchange of phosphorus, zinc, total lipids and cholesterol in broiler chickens cross Cobb-500 33-day age and will be recommended for inclusion in the draft-tab cards which is preparing for registration.

The microstructure and indexes of crop’s wall in prenatal period of ontogenesis of chickens

Dyshlyuk N.

The material for the study was selected from prefetuses and fetuses of chicken cross Shever 579 for 10, 15 and 20 days of incubation (10 in each age group). Classical methods of histological investigation were during studies.
We found that 10 days incubation prefetuses of chickens crop is well developed. It has two parts: the glandular part (near esophagus) and part free of glands (bulging wall of the esophagus). In both its parts the formation of mucous, muscular and adventisia shell takes place. In the mucosa surface epithelium cells arranged in 3-4 rows, lamina propria and submucosa containing fibroblastic and mesenchimal cells, between them muscle plate is not expressed. The muscular coat is constructed of smooth muscle tissue, the cells of which form two layers: an inner-circular and outer longitudinal. Among them there are number of fibroblastic cells. Adventisia is poorly developed. It is formed by mesenchimal cells and fibroblastic series. In all wall shells of crop the formation of blood vessels take place.
In chickens 15-days old fetus continues forming of membranes in both parts of the crop. In the mucosa surface epithelium thickens, its cells situated in 4-5 rows, lamina propria and submucosa is formed by loose connective tissue, between them formation of muscular shell takes place, which is represented by bundles of smooth muscle cells. In the lamina propria and submucosal glandular part of an crop there are dense clusters of epithelial cells, which form secretory glands departments and their ducts. The inner layer of muscle membrane partially invaginates in large folds of mucous membrane. Adventisia formed by loose connective tissue.
In chickens 20-days old daily fetuses wall of crop is completely formed. The epithelium of the mucosa is squamous not keratinizing, its cells in the glandular part are located in 8-16 rows, and in part free of glands up to 26 rows. Secretory departments of glands and their ducts in the glandular part of crop are well defined. Muscular coat has three layers of smooth muscle cells: inner and outer - longitudinal and middle - circular. Adventisia shell is well defined. It increases the number of blood vessels.
Indexes of wall thickness of crop increases with incubation period of chickens. Among shells the best developed membranes are mucous and muscular, and the least developed - adventisia in all studied prefetuses and fetuses chickens. Area of mucous membrane increases with the duration of incubation of birds and muscle membranes and adventisia reduced.

Intraorganlymphatic channel of colon in mammals

Petrovskiy O.E.

Despite some progress in lymphology acquired more knowledge concerning the morphological characteristics of the human lymphatic system. Pretty fully delineated architectonic intraorganic lymphatic channel human colon, whereas those questions in animals not covered.
According to our research, the domestic dog, pig and bovine intraorganic lymphatic channel mucosa consists of surface and deep capillary plexus intraorganic networks and lymph vessels.
Intraorganic capillary plexus of lymph vessels and surface grid is located in the lamina propria of the mucous membrane of the colon crypts directly below. They start blindly or in the form of loops.
Deep capillary net, which is located in submucosal basis, has also loop structure. The two grids are interconnected plenty of anastomoses and anatomically intertwined. In general, surface capillary net has a small loops, deep – has a large loops. The diameter of the capillary surface mesh smaller than the capillaries deep net.
The diameter of the lymph capillaries, size, shape and orientation of the loop formed by them and their location density per unit area of mucosal not the same, which is determined by their belonging to a certain colon and animal species, and possibly not the same type of feeding. With loops deep lymphatic capillaries grid colon mucosa domestic dogs, swine, bovine rise intraorganic lymphatic vessels. First, they look thicker capillaries that join at a greater distance than those that form loops. Soon they find valves.
Merging and anastomosing with each other, they form a grid in the form plexus, topography and number of vessels which are different in different parts of the mucosa.
Features of the structure of lymphatic channels expressed in the character architectonics capillary nets and weaving intraorganic lymphatic vessels, morphological features of endothelial cells forming the walls of lymph capillaries.
Under the electron microscope the cut lymphatic endothelial capillary seen sharply hydrated cytoplasm divergence edges of neighboring cells and endothelial gap between enlarged.
In the work on the basis of morphological, macro-, micro- and submicroscopic technique sand methods of research were studied the principle sand feature sof the structure of intraorganic lymphatic duct of caecum, colon and rectum of domestic's: dog, swine, bull.

Biomorphological particular muscles that act on the shoulder joint of pink flamingos

Melnik O.O.

One of the important aspects of the research of mechanisms of formation of muscles of birds is the study of biomorphology of the shoulder joint of birds. The shoulder joint of birds, unlike mammals, is a complex joint, because more than two bones are involved its formation, namely scapula, which attaches the coracoid and clavicle (fork), and humerus. Equally important is the fact that on this complex and multiaxial joint, besides the muscles of the shoulder joint, more or less, but act other muscles, namely of the shoulder girdle and elbow joint. Questions about differentiation and transformation of these groups of muscles, as a result of adaptation to a particular type of flight, its speed and duration, remains unsolved.
The muscles acting on the shoulder joint of pink flamingos include: anterior latissimus dorsi, posterior latissimus dorsi, deltoid, scapulotriceps, coracopropatagialis, skapulopropatagialis, claviculocervicalis, superficial rhomboid, deep rhomboid, thoracic, caudal scapulohumeralis, cranial scapulohumeralis, caudal serratus, cranial serratus, subscapularis, coracoradialis, humerotriceps, coracobrachialis, claviculobrachialis, supracoracoideus, posterior coracobrachialis, coracothoracalis.
It should be noted, that in pink flamingo propatagial complex is distinguished. The propatagial muscle differentiates into coracopropatagialis and skapulopropatagialis.
M. coracopropatagialis starts from the proximal end of the coracoid and
one part of m. skapulopropatagialis starts with the previous muscle, but its bigger part originates from the dorsal border of the front end of the scapula. In the region of the distal part of deltoid crest m. coracopropatagialis is connected with the propatagial aponeurosis of the pectoral muscle which is connected with the distal part of deltoid crest by elastic tendon. The propatagial aponeurosis of the pectoral muscle passes then into a thin, but hard tendon that in the region of the proximal part of antebrachium passes into the antebrachial fascia. Its tendon is not differentiated from the extensor metacarpi radialis.
M. skapulopropatagialis is fixed to the distal part of the deltoid crest by the relatively wide, but thin tendon. Moreover, muscle fibers pass into a thin, long and hard muscle tendon of the previous mentioned muscle. They are not differentiated from the extensor metacarpi radialis. A small muscle, that in some literature is called biceps brachii pars propatagialis, originates with thin aponeurosis from the hard aponeurosis of the coracoradialis muscle. This muscle is a short muscle belly, the distal end of which receives a tendon that originates from the average thickness of the coracoradial part of elastic propatagial tendon. It should be noted, that above mentioned elastic tendon fixes to the deltoid crest. It is not differentiated from the propatagial aponeurosis of the pectoral muscle and it passes into the tendon that is connected to the elastic tendon. The elastic tendon is formed of two parts which are transformed into one structure. Two long tendons (normal) arise from this elastic tendon and end on the proximal part of metapodium.
As a result of the conducted research of muscles of the shoulder joint of pink flamingos it was found that the degree of differentiation and development, as well as the presence or absence of muscle pinnation, are caused by the action of functional loads in the gravitational field of the Earth.

Influence of facilities for milking on sanitary quality of goat’s milk

 Fotina T.I., Zazharska N.M., Kostyuchenko V.Y.

The task of the research was to determine the influence of drugs Nizhnodiy, Fitosept and Molsan indicators on safety and quality of milk goats.
The study was conducted on goats private enterprise "Hrosov" located in the village Bereznuvativka Solonyansky district of Dnepropetrovsk region in July 2014. Livestock accounted for 36 dairy goats and 45 head of young. Milking goats double hand, feeding - grazing in the pasture.
For the experiment was elected three drugs for the treatment of the udder, milking Fitosept ointment, gel udder hygiene Nizhnodiy and means for sanitation pereddoyilnoyi Molsan.
The use of homoeopathic preparations has substantial advantage before other facilities for treatment udder of goats. These preparations apply the receipt of milk at industrial technology, in the conditions of housekeepings, and also as a hygienical mean for the systematic care of nipples of udder and prophylaxis of mastitises for the females of agricultural zoons.
After application of ointment for milking of Fitosept, Molsan and gel of Nizhnodiy in milk of all goats a lactose (0,09-0,6 %) was increased and the amount of somatic cells and bacterial contamination of nipples diminished substantially, that sure talks about the increase of sanitary quality of milk. At the use of Fitosept, Molsan, the amount of somatic cells diminished gel of Nizhnodiy on 8,6 %, 37,6 %, 43,8 % accordingly. As for the bacterial contamination of nipples a diminishing percent made on 53,2, 43,8, 4,6 accordingly.
For the use of Molsan quality of milk is in relation to somatic cells better on 29 %, than at application of Fitosept. Both preparations almost identically improved the sanitary state of udder`s nipples (on 53-56 %). For the use of gel of Nizhnodiy the bacterial contamination of nipples diminished insignificantly, but the amount of somatic cells reduced on 6,2 % more than in the second group and on 35,2 % more than in the first, but, not because of these advantages gel of Nizhnodiy is some uncomfortable in application.

Physical-chemical composition of pig meat in the application of complex disinfectants

Shkromada O.I.

The article presents the results of investigation of swine meat quality. Production tests were performed in svynonhospodarstvah Sumy region. For the experiment group was formed by 20 heads of pigs in each performed in the control room disinfection using "Ecocide C" and "Virosan" (control), and the second - "B-deztm" and drug "Biotsydin" (experiment). The material for the study was the muscle tissue of the medulla back muscles carcasses of pigs. Animals were slaughtered having reached 100 kg of live weight and samples were taken for organoleptic, biochemical and sanitary expertise. Organoleptic meat evaluation (avascularization, colour, consistency, flavour, sample taken after boiling of fresh and chilled meat) was held in 24 hours and 8 days of its storage in the refrigerated chamber (00...±4 0 С) in the basic research laboratory at the chair of veterinary and sanitary expertise, microbiology, zoohygiene and livestock products safety and quality. Meat chemical composition and calorie content were determined using generally accepted methods (Ostapchuk P. P., 1979) in the meat samples from oblong back muscle, taken in the area of 10-11th intercoastal space; water-absorbing capacity was determined using Grau's method modified by V. P. Volovynska and S. A. Merkulova, comparative biological value of swine meat (CBV) was determided using method of P. V. Mykytiuk with ciliated infusorium Tetrahymenapyrіformis (laboratory strain WH14 ) as a biological object. As a result of the data found that the water-retaining capacity in control samples of meat is higher in comparison with the experimental 2,6 %. Solids content in muscle research groups increased by 2,6 % protein – to 1,05 %, the amount of intramuscular fat – by 0,45 % and ash – 0,08 %. Accordingly, more and calorie meat by 7,3 %. reduce the total number of trace elements in the control group pig meat 2933,39 mg/100 g, compared with research – 3500,9 mg/100 g difference was 567,51 mg/100 g, or 19,3 %. A similar pattern was observed in detecting the number of trace elements in meat experimental animals. In the control group the number was lower compared with research to 37,85 mg/100 g, or 13,5 %. The results of the studies found that the amount of heavy metals cadmium, lead, arsenic and mercury in the flesh of pigs in both groups did not exceed the maximum allowable concentration, but the test sample level was lower.

Dynamics of fresh indicators of broiler chickens’ meat in the enrichment of the diet nanomikroelement feed additive "Mikrostimulin"

Yatsenko I.V., Kirichenko V.M.

Fresh meat broiler determined biosensor, biochemical and microscopic parameters. Analysis biosensor performance meat broiler for 4 days of storage after slaughter found that the control and experimental groups of broiler chickens during the 4 days of storage in muscle cut slightly damp, do not leave wet spots on filter paper their color - pale pink. Consistency smooth muscles, they resilient. Hole formed when you press your finger quickly leveled. The smell of fresh meat peculiar chicken. No foreign odors.
It was conduct a study of the dynamics of freshness of meat of broiler-chickens when the diet is enriching by nanomikroelement feed additive "Mikrostymulin". It is found that the meat of broiler chickens of all research groups remains fresh during 4 days storage at 0...4 ° C.
Concentration of hydrogen ions (pH) meat broiler for 4 days storage in the experimental groups did not differ from the control group. The results of qualitative reactions of copper sulfate in the broth, and also with the reagent Neslera ammonia and ammonium salts showed no decay protein meat broiler of research groups in the storage conditions of the refrigerator at a temperature of 0 ... 4° C. for 4 days.
As the number of volatile fatty acids broiler meat broleriv control and experimental groups are all fresh for 4 days of storage. The highest recorded VFA in meat broiler control group.
As a result of microscopy smears meat of broiler chickens as experimental and control groups is fresh and usable within 4 days of storage at a temperature of 0 ... 4 ° C
Meat broiler control group deteriorates faster than meat research groups confirmed a comprehensive study, doubtful reactions of copper sulfate in the broth, as well as reagent Neslera ammonia and ammonium salts.

The treatment at intensive ponds using crop of white clover (Melilotus albus)

Nazarenko S.M.

At present in Ukraine is a gradual revival of fish-breeding – updated large fish farms, private entrepreneurs rent rates and various fish breeding ponds for the purpose.
Currently, the use ahroakva crop rotation and aqua as health measure widely used in rybohospodarstvah.
Carry out rehabilitation and remediation of contaminated land in the desired direction can be achieved by selecting the most active plants and putting them in rotation. This greatly affects the change of soil microflora.
One of the pressing problems of today is to study the properties of plants such as Phytoncidic activity, ie the ability of plants to allocate particular specific substance - Phytoncides.
In the article the results of treatment at intensive ponds using crop of white clover (Melilotus albus). It is established that the sanitary-bacteriological condition of the soil of the bed of the pond in the cultivation of various crops through 140-150 days after the deflated water showed that by the end of the growing season (150 days after the summer) there is a further reduction of the microbial contamination of the soil, decreases coli-titer titer and enterococci. And the intensity of microbial decontamination is directly dependent on the species of cultivated forage grasses.
The treatment at intensive ponds using crop of white clover (Melilotus albus) reduces MAFAnM soil of the bed of the pond 96,4 % compared with the initial level of bacterial contamination, and coli-titer titer and enterococci reduced from 0,001 to 0,1, indicating a high souchu the ability of crops, which in turn improves the sanitary condition of the soil. At the end of the growing season in the cultivation of amaranth and clover were not identified pathogens.
At the end of the growing season when grown clover we have not identified pathogens. Research on this issue in the future will develop environmentally friendly activities all over the complex to improve the sanitary condition of water bodies.

Control ichtyopatological parasitic diseases in fish farms of Sumy region and asses their impact on fish safety

Petrov R.V.

Ukraine's Eurointegration course of development of agriculture requires obtaining good-quality and environmentally safe and Veterinary respect of products to meet the needs of the population.
This paper presents the data for research on infectious diseases of fish in fish farms Sumy region during 2012-2014 years at the Sumy Regional State Laboratory of Veterinary Medicine, Department of veterinary and sanitary examination, microbiology chair and safety and quality of animal products Sumy National Agrarian University. Registered parasitic disease etiology, namely monohenoyidosis, protozoosis, krustatseosis. Conducted veterinary and sanitary evaluation of diseased fish. Fish farms proposed measures to combat and prevent diseases of fish.
A result of analysis the situation of fish diseases in Sumy region during 2012-2014 g., there is a tendency to reduce the number of positive cases for contagious diseases etiology declined by almost half from 333 to 151, respectively.
For helminths study found that the number of positive cases in 2012 - 58 2013 - 95 in 2014 - 29. Decreased the number of positive results in protozoosis from 247 (2012), 194 (2013). to 114 (2014 g.). Behold, the trend observed in the study on krustatseosis, their number decreased to 8 positive cases in 2014.
In terms of safety, commercial products registered parasite carriage pathogens daktylohirosis, apizoomosis, hidrodaktylosis, lerniosis, tryhodiniosis, miksoboliosis, which does not affect the appearance and allowed in implementation without restrictions.
Complex veterinary and sanitary measures for the prevention of non-communicable diseases of fish recommended fish farms, will prevent the spread of disease and will provide good quality marketable products.
Prospects for further research. In the future, further work is planned to develop a system for monitoring fish diseases in industrial fish farming.

The forensic veterinary definition of the cattle’s age and sex by infrared alosorbtion spectroscopic parameters of the maxillary bone burned

Abuznaid Karem P.S. Yatchenko I.V., Getmanetz A.N.

The purpose of research: To establish the regression's relationship between age of cattle and the IR relative absorbance of ashing maxilla. To analyze the use of infrared spectroscopy method for determination the age and sex of cattle by the spectroscopic characteristics of the occipital bone.
Materials and methods. The object of research was cattle – the females and males from birth to 12 years (144 months). The material of research has been the maxilla. The fragments of bones were extracted from known clinically healthy slaughtered animals without evidence of disease of the skeletal system. By the method of preparation the bones were purified from soft tissue. For prepare the test samples of ashing maxilla were taken samples about 1 gram.
The IR spectra of the ashing maxilla were obtained on the infrared spectrometer “Avatar-360” with Fourier converter (firm Nicolet) in the range of wave numbers 550 – 3500 cm1. For further processing and analysis were identified the six most intensive characteristic absorption bands that were present in each of the obtained IR spectra of ashing maxilla: ν = 567 cm1, ν = 603 cm1, ν = 632 cm1, ν = 1047 cm1, ν = 1091 cm1 and ν = 3433 сm1. For exclusion of diffuse (background) radiation attenuation was applied the basic line method. The relative optical density on the band of absorption with account the background correction was calculated on the base of next expression: D = log (IB / I), where IB – transmittance for the background of the wave number as a percentage; I – measured transmittance for the same wave number as a percentage.
Results. It was found that absorption bands: ν = 567 cm1, ν = 603 cm1, ν = 632 cm1, ν = 1047 cm1, ν = 1091 cm1 and ν = 3433 сm1 were contained in spectra of all samples of bones but their quantitative characteristics depend on the age and on the sex of the animals.
For modeling the dependence on the age of cattle from relative optical density of ashing maxilla the regression analysis has been applied. In regression equation using nonlinear regression function that was previously reliably tested in many works. It was as follows: , where a, b and с – regression parameters whose values were obtained by least squares method.
The most informative in aspect of determining the age and sex of cattle by the IR absorption spectra of maxilla were the wave numbers: ν = 567 cm-1, ν = 603 cm-1, ν = 632 cm-1, ν = 1047 cm-1 and ν = 3433 cm-1 for which the regression curves for females and a males were well separated.
Conclusions. The possibility of determination the age and sex of cattle by the IR absorption spectra of the ashing maxilla in the age range from birth to 10 years with a standard error of determination in the range from 3 to 8 months has been proved. It was shown that the age and sex of the cattle must be performed by determining the relative absorbance digestion of the ashing occipital bones (or fragments thereof) for several (at least two) bands of IR transmittance. Expert studies by determination the age and sex of cattle can be performed as on an anatomically whole, as on a burnt and fragmented materials.

Control of microbiological safety of poultry products

Kasyanenko O.I., Fotina T.I., Proshina A.I., Sobina M.M., Fotina А.А.

Analysis of the poultry market showed that chicken vendors for on agricultural markets are the domestic private sector and the private sector. Studied 123 samples of poultry meat boneless lump 117 samples - poultry lump on the bones, including stehenets and 125 samples of poultry meat mechanical deboning.
In most cases, at research showed poultry discrepancy microbiological safety criteria mechanical deboning poultry. It should be noted that poultry refrigerated thermal condition was more contaminated mesophilic aerobic and facultative anaerobic microorganisms.
Аt research of poultry determined with high probability samples that do not meet veterinary and sanitary requirements and can be a source of risk to the health of consumers, such as the source of food poisoning and toxicity. Effective quality control of poultry meat at the stage of implementation based on the prediction, identification dangerous factors and risk management based on control microbiological safety of products.
The results of microbiological researches of carcasses of poultry of different producers of market are presented in the article. It is set that the microflora of the probed standards falls short of veterinary-sanitary requirements. Realization carcasses enter poultry which potentially can be the source of risk of appearance of food toxicoinfektions and toxicosis for an user. At research of quality and safety of standards of meats poultry the found out the standards of off-grade and dangerous products is on microbiological indexes, that was 23 % from the general amount of the probed tests. The dominant number of positive tests results recorded at research mechanically separated meat refrigerated. Even isolations of microorganisms from the carcasses of poultry at the different technological processes of treatment following: amount of tests which exceed the possible level of MAFAnM, – 84 (23,0 %), also kontaminationad by the bacteria of group of collibacilluss – 4,1 %; kampylobakter – 3,0 %, Salmonella – in 0,5 % investigational tests, Enterococcus of sp. – 15,3 %. By basis reasons which cause the biological factors during realization of meats is: a presence of impermissible levels of biological contamination is in raw material of animal origin which acts for realization.

Chemical composition and calorie content of the broiler-chickens’ meat in the process of food enrichment by nutraceutical citrate of nanomolibden and complex food edditive “Probics”

Golovko N.P.

The article shows the results of studying the way the nutraceutical citrate of nanomolibden and complex food additive “Probics” influence the chemical composition and the calorie content of broiler-chickens’ meat. It proves that the addition of the nutraceutical citrate of nanomolibden and complex food additive “Probics” influence the chemical composition of poultry meat. In such way the boiler-chickens’ red muscles of a control group as well as an experimental one presents the tendency towards the reduction of moisture content and, accordingly, the decrease of weight fraction of dry substance unlike the fowl white muscles. Weight fraction of dry substance is reliably increased (р≤0.05) in boiler-chickens’ red and white muscles of the 3d and 4th experimental groups for account of reliable reduction (р≤0.05) of moisture in comparison to the control ones.
Dry substance consists of weight fraction of fat, protein and ash. In such way it is proved that the boiler-chickens’ white muscles of control as well as experimental groups have the tendency towards the reduction of weight fraction of fat in comparison to the fowl red muscles.
The analysis of the protein content in boiler-chickens’ muscles highlights that protein weight fraction in the chickens’ red and white muscles of the 3d experimental group is reliably bigger in comparison to the control one.
Ash presents the content of mineral substance and some vitamins in meat. The work reveals the natural reduction of ash content in the boiler-chickens’ red muscles of the control and experimental groups in comparison to fowl white muscles. However ash weight fraction of fowl red and white muscles of the experimental group has the tendency towards the increase in comparison to the control one.
Energy value of broiler-chickens’ meat is caused by protein, lipid and carbohydrate contain. Meat protein which is digested by organism forms about 4.1 kcal of energy per 1g of body weight, energy value of fat makes up about 9.3 kcal of energy per 1g of body weight. Energy value of broiler-chickens’ meat is rising for account of increase of protein in fowl red and white muscles of the experimental groups in comparison to the control analogue.

Results obtained quality of honey in the western and eastern regions of Ukraine

Kovtun V. A., Halatyuk O. E., Lazareva L. M., Shapoval J. V., Koval O. S., Kylikova O. P., Kovalenko V. L.

For confirmation the botanical origin of honey conduct an analysis to determine the pollen grains.
The paper presents the results of studies of 158 honey samples, 91 of which – from the west and 67 – from the eastern regions of Ukraine.The authors carried out a comparative analysis of the physico-chemical parameters of different botanical origin of honey from the western and eastern regions.
The obtained results serve to continuing basis for the formation of a database of honey quality parameters obtained in the western and eastern regions of Ukraine, and the Advantages of electronic data compilation in the way of systematizing the material, its volume and quick access.
In analyzing the results of the study found that indicators such as the mass fraction of sugar and sucrose recovery, mass fraction of water samples for the same botanical origin of honey western and eastern regions of the differences in the results hardly revealed. Quantitative indicators diastaznoyi activity with significant differences for buckwheat honey with different regional origin (44,40±1,99 units. Goethe and 35,25±1,15 units. Goethe for Western and Eastern regions respectively), and slightly less for honey herbs (20,80±1,23 units. Goethe and 26,29±2,82 units. Goethe for Western and Еastern regions respectively).
In analyzing the results of the study of honey from buckwheat regardless of region, found that the average yields of sugars, sucrose, diastase and HMF meet the highest quality and the content of water – the first (18,89 % and 18,98 % for the Western and Eastern regions respectively).
Promising research is seen further examples of different botanical origin of honey to compare the results of samples of honey from other regions of Ukraine. As well as the harmonization of national legislation in the field of quality and safety of apiculture products according to international requirements and standards.
Systematization of the results was carried out on such indicators as the number of diastase activity, content of hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), the mass fraction of water, mass fraction of renewable sugars and sucroseand pollen grains composition. The results obtained are entered into a database of quality indicators of honey.

Problems of some distribution andprotection question of Black sea doiphins

Koval G.I., Kobzar Т.А.

Diagnostics of respiratory infection of pigs a bacterial etiology

Omelchenko G.O.

Timely diagnostics of infectious diseases of pigs is the key to effective treatment and prevention, and tangible economic losses require veterinary experts systematically improve the means to combat them. In recent years, often recorded associated pneumonia etiology.
Bacteriological study of pathological material from dead and forced 178 slaughtered pigs of all ages and stages of the disease was by reference "Laboratory studies in veterinary medicine/Bacterial Infections" (1986). The species of microorganisms belonging installed using determinant "Bergey" (1997).
From 178 pigs with signs of respiratory tract allocated 243 bacterial cultures. Of these, the P. multocida cultures attributed 86 (35,4 %), B. bronchiseptica – 56 cultures (23,0 %), A. laidlawi – 20 cultures (8,2 %), D. lanceolatus – 20 cultures (8,2 %), M. hyorhinis – 14 cultures (5,8 %), E. coli – 13 cultures (5,3 %), A. granularum – 11 cultures (4,6 %), S. cholerae suis – 10 crops (4,1 %), S. typhimurium – 8 crops (3,3 %), S. dublin – 5 plants (2,1 %).
The incidence of respiratory diseases in different types of farms north-eastern region of Ukraine depended to some extent by seasonality, the age of animals, concentrations of livestock feeding conditions, method of maintenance, layering other diseases of Veterinary cultural facilities and others factors.
Typification of 86 strains of Pasteurella found that 50 (20,6 %) of them in capsule antigen belonging to serotype A, 32 (13,2 %) strains – to serotype D, and 4 strains (1,6 %) typizuvalys as serotype B.
The analysis of data that characterize an epizootic situation concerning respiratory diseases of pigs in Ukraine, testify to a tendency to their increase. The respiratory diseases are wide spread on the territory of Ukraine and occupy 25,6-29,1 % of the general patology of the pigs. The infections are most dangerous for the farms. In the observed farms of north – east region of Ukraine respiratory diseases of pigs associated etiology, which activators can be connections mycoplasma, pasteurella, bordetella are registered. Thus they are characterized high contact, prevalence (22-62 %) and lethality (10-32 %).

The influence of corticosteroids on the resistance of birds to the neoplasm

Livoschenko L.P., Livoschenko E.M.

With a wide variety onkovirusiv in our country and around the world the most common pathogens Marek's disease and lymphoid leukemia. Increased resistance to poultry oncogenic viruses has both economic and general biological significance.
Hormones, standing out the blood and tissue fluid, have a significant effect on the protective functions of the body. This emphasizes the adrenal glands, whose function is critical to the body. This gave rise to test the level of corticosteroids as a test of resistance to neoplasms.
Tumor regression rate and corticosteroids have a positive relationship with each other. The level of reactivity characterized by an average degree of heredity. Moreover, it should be noted that unlike productive features where inheritance surname significantly lower than the mother's genetic diversity at the level of corticosteroids has significant influence father. This pattern should be considered in the selection to increase or decrease the reactivity.
Summarizing the above, we can assume that the level of stress on the background of corticosteroids (ACTH) is a test for evaluation Poultry viability and resistance to Marek's disease. Using the latest possible in the selection
Revealed a significant difference in the level of corticosteroids between the lines of chickens (from 3,76 to to 9,67 mg/I00 ml), families and the families inside the lines (from 2,88 to a 4,64 mg/100 ml); the safety of the young animals, the ability to regress neoplasm caused by HRV, and resistance to Marek's disease is significantly higher in disconecting groups than reactive. To increase stability of the birds can be used an indicator of reactivity to stress (ACTH).
In order to create low reactive lines should select the bird with the level of corticosteroids M – 0,5 σ, vysokokoreaktyvnyh - M + 0,5 σ. Between tumor regression rates and levels of corticosteroids there is a positive relationship. In groups with a level of corticosteroids M - 0,5 σ regression occurred significantly (P=0,5) better than + 0,5 σ M and amounted to 40,3 % and 22,2 % respectively.

Tuberculoprotein production of the strain M. bovis Valle KMIEV-9K

Holovko V.A., Kassich O.V., Kassich V.U., Kolesnikova K.U., Koshelnik V.H.

The main method of aftermortem diagnosis of tuberculosis in animals is the allergic test with the use of PPD-tuberculin for mammals. Preparations for the allergic testing of tuberculosis in animals and birds, including "Tuberculin purified (PPD) for mammals in a standard solution" (TUU 24.00497087.645-2001). They are manufactured by Sumy Biological Factory and used during planned diagnostic tests for tuberculosis in Ukraine. However, it should be noted that the legislative act applied by member countries of the European Union is the Council Directive 97/12/EU from 17th March 1997. According to this document, intravital allergic studies in animals are conducted using tuberculin PPD (Protein purified derivative) or HCSM (Heat-concentrated synthetic-medium tuberculin). According to the EU standards, which were provided by the Institute voor Dierhouderij en Diergenzondheid (ID-DLO), Lelistad, the Netherlands, PPD mammalian tuberculin must have the efficiency of 50 000 CTU/ml and be produced from M. bovis AN5 or Valle strains. At the same time "Tuberculin purified (PPD) for mammals in standard solution" TUU 24.00497087.645-2001, produced from «M. bovis IECVM-1» strain is used in the similar testing in Ukraine. Therefore the development of national dry purified tuberculin PPD from M. bovis «AN5» or «Valle» strains is an urgent task. That is why, the aim of our work was to study the proteinogenic properties of M. bovis Valle (modified KMIEV-9K) production strains with further development of national preparations for the allergic diagnosis of tuberculosis in animals that meet the EU requirements. The test series of the purified tuberculin (PPD) for mammals in the standard solution were prepared from the culture filtrate of bovine tuberculosis causative agent M. bovis, Valle KMIEV-9K strain, grown in a Sauton’s liquid synthetic culture medium. The PPD was obtained by autoclaving (100оС for 3 hours) and separation of bacterial mass; obtaining and sterilization of cultural filtrates (sterilizing filtration); precipitation of protein with trichloroacetic acid solution; reprecipitation with saturated solution of ammonium sulfate; removal of salts through dialysis followed by determining the concentration of protein in 1 cm3 of solution. Determination of the protein mass fraction in a standard tuberculin solution was performed by Kjeldahl method. According to current requirements, the protein mass fraction in tuberculin must be 0,8±0,2 mg/cm3. The mass fraction of protein in the tuberculin series (X) produced from M. bovis Valle (modified KMIEV-9K) strain was 0,88±0,3 mg/cm3.Thus, the results of this study show that M. bovis Valle (modified KSP) and AN5 strains are technological, highly proteinogenic and can be used for the development, production and implementation as a national tuberculin PPD for mammals, which will meet the EU requirements.

Detection and identification of bacteria Cronobacter spp. (sakazakii) by polymerase chain reaction

Berhilevych O., Ushkalov V., Kasyanchuk V., Deryabin O., Grishina E.

The study was conducted in several stages in accordance with the objectives.
It is known that the exogenous sources of microflora of raw skim milk is dairy farms facilities, including milking machines, milkwire, storage tanks milk and feed and bedding.
In the first phase of research, which aimed to identify and establish morphological, cultural and biochemical characteristics of isolates of bacteria Cronobacter spp. (Sakazakii) in raw collective milk cows and the environment of dairy farms has been identified suspected isolates 30 isolates on cultural properties, of which 25 were confirmed in biochemical properties.
These isolates were transferred to the department of molecular biology and immunochemistry State Scientific-control institute of biotechnology and strains for further study molecular methods.
The next stage of research involved the analysis and theoretical foundation of existing scientific literature sequences specific groups of genes on bacteria Cronobacter spp. (Sakazakii).
The article presents the results of research, that were conducted for the first time in Ukraine, concerning possibility of identification bacteria Cronobacter spp. (sakazakii) by polymerase chain reaction using 16SrRNA gene. Isolates of bacteria Cronobacter spp. (sakazakii) were isolated from raw milk and dairy farms objects in Sumy region. Among the isolates, 25 were selected, which had typical morphological, cultural and biochemical properties for PCR. After searching and sequence analysis of genes with conserved and variable regions in bacteria Cronobacter spp. (sakazakii), there have been several pairs of oligonucleotide primers specific to various portions of the gene 16SrRNA. By using these primers in PCR DNA isolates were obtained preliminary positive results with 20 bacterial isolates Cronobacter spp. (sakazakii).
According to information received, reliable identification of Cronobacter spp. (sakazakii) is currently only possible using a comprehensive approach based on a combination of classical methods (microscopy, culture and biochemical characteristics) with molecular genetic methods.

The sensitivity of circulating strains Саmруlоbасtеr spp. to antibacterial drugs

Нladchenko S.M.

In article results of research of the sensitivity of isolates Campylobacter spp. isolated from products of poultry slaughtering, equipment of slaughterhouses and slaughter products of cattle, up to 12 types of antibiotics of different groups. Studied strains of campylobacteria highly sensitive to erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, сefazolin, tetracycline, gentamicin and norfloxacin.
The effectiveness of treatment of bacterial infections in animals and poultry is determined by rationality and ogruntovannyh zastosowania antibiotics. Bacteriologists have noted widespread among microbial population antibioticresistant strains and multiple resistance of the majority of bacterial pathogens in traditional antimicrobial agents. Therefore, the definition of the susceptibility of bacteria to antibacterial drugs is important.
Campylobacteriosis (Vibrio) is an infectious disease of birds, characterized by the occurrence in the form of enteritis, hepatitis, septicemia, endotoxemia. The disease is zooantroponoses.
The source of infection is ill and sick poultry, as well as latent carriers. Infection occurs primarily through the alimentary through waterers, feeders, bedding, tools, infected food and water. An important link in epizootic chain has infected cockroaches, flies, rodents, wild and synanthropic bird.
Campylobacteriosis is extremely common among people, especially children, in all countries of the world. Campylobacteria predetermine 5 to 10% of all acute bacterial diarrhoeal diseases. The main source of infection for humans are agricultural and other domestic animals, birds, synanthropic and wild rodents. The prevalence of C. fetus, C. jejuni, especially observed in rabbits (11-13 %), cats (30-45 %) and ducks (over 80 %). The introduction of new diagnostic techniques have allowed to establish that the microorganisms of the genus Campylobacter is one of the major causes of bacterial diarrhea among residents of economically developed countries. They campylobacteriosis incidence is 20 to 60 cases per 100 thousand population. To date, frequent incidence of campylobacteriosis are registered in Ukraine, the USA, Finland, Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Iceland, Great Britain and others.
The objective of the study was to determine the sensitivity of isolates of Campylobacter spp. (C. jejuni and C. coli isolated from products poultry slaughtering and equipment of slaughterhouses and C. fetus was isolated from products of slaughter cattle) to the antibiotic disk diffusion method.
As a result of the research showed that:
1. Isolated strains of Campylobacter jejuni isolated from products poultry slaughtering and equipment of slaughterhouses, highly sensitive to erythromycin (100 %), ciprofloxacin and gentamicin (83,4 %).
2. Isolates of strains of Campylobacter coli isolated from products poultry slaughtering and equipment of slaughterhouses, highly sensitive to antibiotics such as tetracycline and norfloxacin (75 %).
3. Isolated strains of Campylobacter fetus isolated from products of slaughter cattle, is highly sensitive to сefazolin and ciprofloxacin (100 %), tetracycline and norfloxacin (75 %).
In the future it is planned to develop a theoretical and practical justification of the system of treatment and prevention of campylobacteriosis in ptahogospodarstvo, as well as the development of measures to minimize contamination campilobacter products poultry slaughtering.

Detection and identification of shiga-toxin producing strain of the bacteria E. coli by polymerase chain reaction

Kasyanchuk V., Ushkalov V., Berhilevych O., Deryabin O., Efimovа O., Kozii R.

Most types of the bacteria E. coli, do not cause disease in humans, on the contrary, some of them are useful and some cause gastrointestinal infection and urinary tract infection. In recent years, special attention became pathogenic types of E. coli. Among the most famous is E. coli O157: H7. Most often these bacteria are found in raw beef.
For the detection and identification of Shiga toxin producing E. coli bacterial variants were designed oligonucleotide primers specific to the toxin genes and stx1 stx2, and all polymorphic gene variants еае.
The aim of this work is to develop tools for molecular genetic analysis (detection and identification) Shiga-producing strains of bacteria E. coli. Analysis of amplification products was performed by separation of DNA fragments on a 1,5 % agarose gel (Sigma, USA). A bundle of DNA bands on received and Registration elektroforegramme determined using "MolecularImageGelDocXR +".
Original specificity of oligonucleotide primers for the gene and stx2 gene eae were verified. Determine the characteristics of the gene and stx2 gene eae, as tools for molecular genetic analysis of Shiga-toxin-producing strains of E. coli bacteria for the purpose of detection and identification. From research that the optimal temperature conditions for both primer pairs is 65° C.
To determine the sensitivity of the designed primers were prepared by serial 10-fold dilutions of purified bacterial DNA. The concentration of the purified DNA positive samples was determined by spectrophotometry and amounted to strain O145 – 22,28 ng/0,001 cm3 (gene eae) and 20,70 ng/0,001 sm3dlya strain O157 (gene stx2)
Tested the specificity and sensitivity of the synthesized primers E.coli strains of serotypes O157, O145 and O111z National Collection of microbial strains. These primers to be used as a source of target genes: gene and gene stx2 eae. Stx2 gene was detected in strain E. coli serotype O157 and gene eae - strain E. coli O145 serotype.

The impact of excess copper, iron, cobalt on the morphology spleen colibacillosis in neonatal piglets

Srypka M., Zapeka I.

Intoxication caused by the excess of trace elements in the organism contributes to the development of secondary immunodeficiency and causes disease of pigs, in connection with the activation of pathogenic microflora. On the farm that was examined the mortality of piglets from colibacillosis was 43%.
As a result, post-mortem examination found that the length of the spleen - 8.2; width - 1.3 cm.A cross section of the spleen triangular shaped, dark cherry color, marked vascular blood filling in organ.
Histological examination established a well-developed fibrous capsule, its width from 24.34 to 88.56 µm. Capsule with signs of edema, width ranging from 13.43 ± 1.16 µm to 54.67 ± 2.57 µm. There is no clear distribution of the red and white pulp. The relative area of the white pulp is from 9-13% to 27%. Lymph nodules small volume and size as compared with the norm. They do not have clear boundaries.
Blood vessels with blood. Stromal edema spleen, uneven filling vessels, infiltration of red pulp erythrocytes. In consequence of spleen tissue edema has slit-like structure. Infiltration of the parenchyma of the spleen lymphocytes and accumulation of hemosiderin.
Thickened trabeculae, with signs of edema, mucoid swelling of collagen and elastic fibers. There is bundle fibers. The width of the trabeculae in such areas 116.44 ± 3.27 µm. Microcracks formed in trabeculae.
Noted decrease in the number of nodules (1-3 in sight). Their area are between 2104.40 ± 397.34 µm2 up to 3101.88 ± 213.87 µm2, in some areas – 26248.81 ± 1263.38 µm2. In most cases, the lymph nodules are not formed. Around the rim of the central artery of 2-3 rows of lymphocytes. Swelling of the walls of the arteries. The diameter of the artery in extended areas -13.13 ± 0.75 µm, in spasm areas 2.97 ± 0.31 µm.
Individual nodules are traced without a clearly demarcated zones. The contours of nodules are smoothed and cells are placed in them tightly. Width of periarterial sheaths ranged from 25.47 ± 1.53 µm to 75.85 ± 1.34 µm. In these sections there are eosinophils. Around some central arteries nodular area in general is not expressed, there is lymphocytic infiltration of the pulp. Contours of nodules are absent, represented by a small cluster of cells.

Effect of strain Aerococcus viridans BI-07 for salmonellosis by while mice at simultaneous antagonists

Biben I.A.

One of the priorities of Veterinary Medicine at the present stage is to create a humane and environmentally friendly technologies of animals, in order to obtain physiologically biosafety and quality of livestock products. Outdated and environmentally unacceptable is the use of feed antibiotics to save the young, and as growth promoters. Unconditional alternative to feed antibiotics are probiotic preparations of the resident microflora.
Active antagonistic properties with respect to the enteric bacterial pathogens is Aerococcus viridans. Antimicrobial activity aerococcuses provides production of hydrogen peroxide and a complex stimulating effect on the immunoreactivity of the microorganism. In our study, we isolated from a healthy body culture aerococcuses and studied its effect on the infectious process with Salmonella infection in white mice as a therapeutic and prophylactic agent. Culture aerococcuses was isolated by the method of Gorbunovoj of healthy broilers, actively gaining weight fattening, out of a total sample of a few chickens. The culture was identified by Bergey and possess properties typical for the species with the highest antimicrobial activity. Given the pronounced antagonistic effects on aerococcuses opportunistic intestinal microflora, it was decided to examine the impact of culture on aerococcuses infectious process in the model organism of white mice caused them to emergent pathogen - Salmonella. Conducted a series of experiments with three cottage culture aerococcuses therapeutic and prophylactic followed by infection with a lethal dose of pre-titrated Salmonella in the amount of one LD50.
At the same time found that the emergent infection in white mice, culture aerococcuses has a weakly expressed therapeutic effect, but the preliminary oral permanent cottage has an effective opposition to the development of Salmonella infection in white mice. Culture aerococcuses with simultaneous and giving does not prevent the development of an infectious process, but it also has a positive effect on the dynamics of pathogenesis and symptoms of the disease and improves post-infectious microorganism rehabilitation.

Avitaminosis: triggers of the trichophytia among small animals

Morozovа V.V., Gontar’A.M., Severin R.V.

In the article analysis distribution of the Trichophytia depending on the dynamics, breed, and biochemical changes in theblood among dogs and cats. The studies were conducted in Kharkov on the basis of the veterinary clinic "Murzik".
Today, veterinary science has made considerable progress in the study and eliminate many diseases of small animals, but some of them are still widespread. These include fungal (mikotychni) diseases of animals.
During the period of 2014-2015 years of dermatological diseases, there were 250 patients - 43.0% of the total number of sick animals. The analysis was carried out on the basis of the original veterinary documents and direct observation of the animals given clinical - anamnesis and laboratory tests. Among skin diseases in 52% of cases diagnosed with ringworm. As studies have shown, in 79.4% of cases dermatomycoses more refined diagnosis is trichophytosis.
Analyzing the results of mycological research found that skin lesions mainly occurs in dogs breed dachshund fungus Trichophytonum – 42 %. For further laboratory results ranked second spaniel breed where 40 % of skin lesions fungus Trichophytonum gupseum, in third place – Rottweilers (10 %) and fourth place – 8 % for Fox Terrier.
It was established that most patients trihofitii young animals to 2-2,5 years that is 21-15 % of infected animals and older animals with reduced resistance at the age of 9 years and older, among them percent of trichophytia was 10-16 % or more.
So, zooantrophonous dermatophytes play an important role in disease of animals and humans today; trihofitii small pets is Trichophyton, and the factors in causing the disease include vitamin deficiency and lack of minerals in the body.

Susceptibility of different breeds of dogs to pathogens of demodecosis, otodecnosis and sarcoptosis

Yevstafieva V., Havryk K.

Among dogs and cats are registered diseases, not unique to this species, and common to other animals and humans. The most common among dogs registered ektoparasitic invasion diseases caused by Acariformes, namely otodektosis, sarcoptosis and demodecosis.
The aim of our study was to investigate the species composition akaroses of dogs in terms of. c. Kremenchug and of determining the susceptibility of different breeds of dogs to Acariformes.
Research materials were dogs that acted to Kremenchug city hospital with various administrative districts of c. Kremenchug. Waste dynamics for akaroses of dogs studied in animals thirty nine different species, of which 14 - decorative, 16 - service 9 - hunting and mixed-breed and outbred dogs.
In all were examined 1143 dogs. Research has established that demodecosis (EI=20,21 %), otodektosis (8,7 %) and sarcoptosis (13 %) of dogs are common akaroses of dogs in the c. Kremenchug and degree of infestation animals depends on their breed. The most affected by pathogens of akaroses were dogs of mixed-breed and outbred (50 %) and hunting breed dogs (42,05 %). Less invasions registered in dogs service and decorative breeds (93,2 and 39,81 %, respectively).
Indicators of akarosic invasion extensity of dogs depended on breed background. Most affected dogs were mixed-breed and outbred (50 %) and hunting breed dogs (42,05 %). The maximum extensity of demodekosic invasion (47,06–52,52 %) recorded in dog breeds: Kurzhaar, Yahterier, Fox Terrier, as well as metises and outbred animals. Dog breeds Bull Terrier, Dalmatian and outbred animals are most susceptible to the pathogen to otodektosis (35,35–50 %). However, dog breeds: Jack Russell Terrier, Basset Hound, Siberian Huskies, Alaskan Troublemaker had the highest rates of infestation by pathogens of sarcoptosis (33,33–50 %).
In further research is planned to study the therapeutic efficacy of different therapeutic schemes in demodecosis, sarcoptosis and otodektosis of dogs with considering their breed features.

Therapeutical efficacy brontel 10 % for trematodozah and nematodosis ruminants

Kovalenko L.M., Kovalenko A.I.

During the years 2010-2014 in Chernihiv region invazovanist ruminant pathogens fastsiolozno-nematodoznoyi infestation ranged 4,2-6,1%. Established that the extensiveness of both increased during the invasions of increased rainfall and temperatures in the spring and summer, from May to August, helped by increasing populations and katushkopodibnyh Lymnaea molluscs intermediate hosts of trematodes. In 2014 there has been a increase extensiveness fastsioloznoyi nematodoznoyi and invasions, respectively, 6,1 % and 0,2 % in the average over 5 years 4,98 % and 0,06 %.
In these paper results of a study confirming the spread of pathogens trematodozno-nematodoznoy invasion of ruminant animals on farms Chernihiv region. Today epizootic situationin the area of woodland satiationatrouble with Fasciolosis, complicated by the emergence and rapids preadfairly nematodoz invasion. The incidence animals correlated with thetotal number of livestock, station aryhabitats and clinical manifestation of the biological properties of the parasite. Each of these ediestac companied by a number of problems such as: a decrease in milk and meat productivity of ruminants, deterioration of this product, premature culling high lyproductive animals, recycling damaged in eternal organs, as well as substantial costs of health treatment and prevention. The lack of long-termeffective anthelmintic drugs promoted mikstinvaziya mong ruminants that in a short time led to the formation of many cells helmintotsenozu in the region. The use of modern anthelmintic brothel 10 % all owscarrying out an effective system of treatment and preventive measure sagainst fastsiolozno-nematodoznoy invasion ruminants.
Research on this subject in the future will establish relationships fasciola features and nematodes in the definitive host organism and reveal the pathogenesis of mixed infestations in ruminants. This will enable the scheme to develop effective preventive measures to combat Fasciolosis and nematodosis at monoinvaziyah and their associated flow.

Performance evaluation Tolkoktsid and Baykoks and their effect on blood biochemical parameters sheep at eymeriozis invasion

Bogach M.V., Bogach T.V, Bezdetko L.E., Bondarenko L.V.

Objective. In the experiment to determine the effectiveness Tolkoktsyd and Baykoks eymeriosis for sheep and ascertain their effect on the total of the resistance of the organism.
Materials and methods research. According to the principle of analogues was formed five groups of lambs daily 75-90 days of age affected eymeriosis invasion (n=5) of which four research and control. After giving antiparasitic medicines faeces samples were taken at 3, 7, 10, 15 days to study the flotation method and blood samples were taken in front of the chemoprevention and 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 days after treatment.
The results of their research and discussion. At spontaneous eymeriosis invasion of sheep ekstensefficiency 2,5 % concentration Tolkoktsyd and Baykoks was 80 % and 5 % Tolkoktsyd and Baykoks 5 % showed 100 % efficiency.
In applying Tolkoktsyd 2,5 % at the 15 and 20 day biochemical parameters closer to normal, while the application Baykoks these figures approached only 30 days which indicates A/G coefficient 1,0 and total protein content – 64,8±0,4 g/l.
At eymeriosis spontaneous invasion of sheep Tolkoktsyd and Baykoks 5 % concentration affected the biochemical blood parameters as indicated by decrease of albumin, which was at 26,2±0,2 g/l and 27,6±0,9 g/l to 5, 10 and 15 days.
Significantly increased total globulin to 39,4±0,3 g/l against 35,1±0,4 g/l to the treatment of animals. These figures influenced the A/G coefficient, which for two weeks after treatment animals was low 0,8 to 0,6-0,7 to the use of drugs. There were high-level indicator of CIC and seromucoid, indicating the course of inflammatory processes and the immunosuppressive effect of increased concentration Tolkoktsyd and Baykoks.

Economic efficacy of medicinal prodocts on the basis ivermectin at trichurosis of pigs

Melnychuk V.

Trichurosis ‒ a common parasitic disease of pigs, which is registered in all regions of Ukraine. Development and implementation modern domestic preparations in veterinary helminthological practice is a key issue. The purpose of work was to investigate of therapeutic and economic efficacy preparations based on ivermectin for domestic production at trichurosis of pigs.
Research conducted during 2014–2015 years at the Scientific Laboratory of Parasitology Faculty of Veterinary Medicine of Poltava State Agrarian Academy. Experimental studies was performed at the farm AF «CHOB-99» Hrebinka Raion, Poltava region. The experiment used a large white breed pigs aged 4–6 months, spontaneously affected by trichurises. We determined the therapeutic and economic efficacy of macrocyclic lactones: brovermektin injection, brovermektin-granulated and brovermektin 2 % solution for oral administration.
The animals were first injected intramuscularly experimental group brovermectin injection at a dose of 0,3 cm3/10 kg body weight once. Piglets second experimental group fed brovermectin-granulated in a medical-feed mixture at a dose of 2 g/10 kg seven days in a row according to the mode of feeding. The animals of the third experimental group given to drink brovermectin 2% at a dose of 1 ml/50 kg body weight once. Calculated for all livestock dose diluted in one third of the daily requirement of drinking water and given to drink within one day. Piglets control group not conducted dehelmintization.
Conclusions. 1. It is established that brovermektin 2 % solution for oral use was the most efficient (EE=80 %, IE=99,4 %) at trichurosic invasion of pigs and resulted in obtaining the maximum daily increases in body weight (185,33±7,72 g ) piglets which released from helminths.
2. The highest levels of economic efficacy (113,47 UAH on 1 UAH of costs) of treatment measures at trichurosis of pigs established by the use brovermektin 2 %.
3. Preparations brovermektin injection and brovermektin-granulated have less pronounced therapeutic and economic indicators.

Microscopic structure features of perch’s kidneys at norm and at posthodiplostomosis

Aishpur А.

During histological research of perch`s kidney, we found that kidney from the outside is covered with connective capsule, built with a fairly large size fibroblasts and bundles of collagen fibers. Parenchyma of organ can be divided into 2 main structural systems that are placed in the stroma of organ and perform significantly different functions. Histological research found that perch`s kidney doesn’t only performs a specific function, but also is an organ of lymphopoiesis.
In general, the microscopic structure of the renal corpuscle in perch is similar to that in mammals. Each renal corpuscle is built with Bowman's capsules, in cavity of which is capillary plexus (kidney glomerulus). Bowman's capsule is a bowl-shaped double wall bag, where the glomerulus is. It consists of parietal (external) leaf, built from simple flat epithelium, and visceral (internal) leaf, built with specialized cells – podocytes.
Nephron in perch built from renal cells, the proximal convoluted tubule, which is divided into the first and second segments, the distal convoluted tubule, collecting tubules and collecting ducts. Characteristic of mammalian kidneys papillae, collecting cups and renal pelvis in kidney of perch are absent, as well as structural analogs of juxtaglomerular apparatus and the loop of Henle. Collecting tubules into the collecting (excretory) duct, similar to that in the kidney of mammals is absent. Wall of this duct is covered with mucous membrane from the inside, collected in rather large folds. Its epithelium presented with prismatic epithelium. Collecting duct performs the function of accumulating and controlled urinary excretion, superceding renal pelvis and bladder in mammals.
Second system of the kidneys is presented with hematopoietic tissue. Kidneys in perch is a place of lymphopoiesis and immune system. Throughout the organ, there are diffusely located centers of lymphopoiesis, presented with accumulations of immature lymphoid cells range of different sizes and shapes, among which are already fully differentiated lymphocytes. Such centers of hematopoietic tissue are closely in contact with near located renal corpuscles and tubules.
In the affected with posthodiplostomatosis perch microscopic structure of the kidney doesn’t different from the microscopic structure of the control kidney, clinically healthy fish.

Measures and prophylaxis mouth fungus scalar

Lawrynenko I.V., Perederiy O.O., Zhernosik I.A.

Currently extremely popular aquarium fish farming is a delight. Observation of fish life positively affects the mood of the owners, as well as climate premises. However, aquaculture facilities are often affected by pathogens of infectious and parasitic diseases.
Given epizootological data, clinical signs, pathological changes and the results of laboratory research was diagnosed - kolumnarioz and isolated pathogen identified as Flavobacterium columnare.
Sick fish isolated in a separate tank, used to treat "Enroksyl 10% solution» (KRKA, Slovenia) at a rate of 0.5 ml per 10 liters of aquarium water. The drug is made every day for 5 days, every day spent substitution of 30% water. The active ingredient of the drug - fluoroquinolone (enrofloxacin) has antibacterial activity against gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms.
Found that mouth fungus scalar emerged against the background of unfavorable changes in microbiota composition and aquarium water. High alkalinity and excess phosphate in comparison with the normal accumulation provoked opportunistic pathogen microorganisms and increase its virulence, as a result there was an imbalance in the system host-parasite development and clinical manifestation of the disease fish.
It was established that the development of clinical manifestations mouth fungus scalar occurs against the background of unfavorable changes in the chemical composition and of microbiocenosis of aquarium water.
Used for the treatment a liguor during five days with the drug "Enroksyl 10 % solution". For restoration of the balance was carried water sanitation with drug "Cidex".
In the future – a substitute for water filtered and re mineralized and enrichment of carbon dioxide. To prevent the disease is necessary to organize correct and various nutrition for fish. Also monitor main indicators of hydrochemical and temperature conditions and follow norms of definite guantity of fish.
For the prevention of the disease is necessary to organize proper nutrition and a variety of fish and monitor key indicators hydrochemical and temperature control, lighting and prevent overpopulation aquarium aquatic organisms.
Previous events allow the flash to eliminate kolumnaryoz in aquarium fish and restore the biological balance in terms of closed ekohidrosystemy aquarium.

Comparative efficacy of medicinal products of pigsascarosis

Soloviova L.N., Gryn V.V.

Biology and environmental features zoofilnyh flies in industrial poultry
Nagorna L.V.
The Qualitative and quantitative composition of organic acids preparation Biovir

Kotsyumbas I.Ya., Kushnir V.I, Kushnir G.V, Ryvak G.P., Kovalenko A.V., Cherno N.K., Kapustyan A.I.

Determination of organic acids in the experimental samples was performed by capillary electrophoresis using capillary electrophoresis system "Capel-105 / 105m", equipped with special software from the PC. With organic acids determined oxalic, formic, fumaric, succinic, malic, citric, acetic, propionic, lactic, benzoic, corbinovu, formic and acetic.
The results of the study of qualitative and quantitative content of organic acids in a biologically active product containing peptidoglycan of lactic acid bacteria by capillary electrophoresis using equipment Capel-105/105М. According to the research components we found that it consists of oxalic, citric, acetic, lactic, benzoic and sorbic acid.
The determination of quantitative content of these acids, have set the highest concentration in acetic and lactic acid, which in percentage terms was 6,0 and 2,5 %.
Determination of the qualitative and quantitative composition of organic acids in the product Biovir allows deeper to reveal the mechanism of its immunostimulatory action.
The preparation Biovir are oxalic, citric, acetic, lactic, benzoic and sorbic acid.
The value of acetic acid metabolism is very high because it is a source of acetyl-CoA, which is used in the Krebs cycle. Also important lactic acid, which is used as an energy source and is involved in lipogenesis. Also found its high antibacterial activity, actively stimulate the secretion of pancreatic enzymes and process recovery of intestinal villi.The concentration of acetic and lactic acid was the highest in percentage terms was, respectively – 6,05 and 2,47 %.
The calculation of citric and sorbic acids, their content was, respectively – 0,23 and 0,05 %. The concentration of oxalic acid and benzoic was almost at the same level and amounted to – 0,016 and 0,015 %.
Determination of the qualitative and quantitative composition of organic acids in the product Biovir allows deeper to reveal the mechanism of its immunostimulatory action.
Further studies will be used to study the effect of the drug "Biovir" on the body of laboratory animals.

Relevance using prebiotics for the prevention urine acid diathesis of turkey poults

Vishnevsky S., Tsvilihovsky M.

Urate diathesis diagnosed in 20-30% of the total population of turkeys 2 months of age with extensive technology of growing, because in this age turkeys begins rapidly to form bone skeleton and feather cover. The aim was to investigate the in vitro effect of prebiotics Tryman-P on viability ciliates Colpoda Stenii and justify the relevance of its use for the prevention of urine acid diathesis in turkeys for extensive technology of their cultivation.
A prerequisite for the recognition of our probiotic properties of the drug Tryman-P was given that the normal intestinal microflora has a significant impact on growth and development of young birds, prevention of hypovitaminosis and enzyme activity; endogenous synthesis of nucleotides, essential amino acids (tryptophan) and peptides; regulation of adaptation; reduce the risk of intestinal infections morbidity and forming a protective barrier of the intestinal mucosa.
To determine the efficacy of prebiotic Tryman-P used live culture kolpodi ciliates (Colpoda Stenii), which is an integral part of the normal flora of the gastrointestinal tract of birds. The feasibility of the use of probiotic Tryman-P for the prevention by urine acid diathesis in turkeys is based on the understanding that prebiotics as specific immunomodulators, significantly improve the composition of beneficial microflora of the alimentary canal of poultry, restore biocenosis intestine.
The most important function of useful intestinal microflora is fermentation of dietary fiber – polysaccharides that perform functions such as stimulation of the growth of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus acidophilus; adsorption of toxic products and removing them from the body; providing energy needs for 6-9 %; antioxidant activity (protecting the intestinal mucosa against free radicals); creating places for fixing intestinal microorganisms; enhance intestinal peristalsis.
Established that prebiotic Triman-P in a dose of 0,5 mg/l of water increases the viability useful gastrointestinal microflora and promotes its growth. Actuality use of probiotics for the prevention of urine acid diathesis in turkeys for their extensive cultivation technology.

The number of red blood cells and hemoglobin in the blood of suckling piglets with the introduction of nano iron preparation

Danchuk V.V., Prystupa T.I.

Humoral mechanisms of adaptation of piglets after the birth of a fundamental restructuring of metabolism. Important for the functioning of adjustment mechanisms in the body and maintain homeostasis should provide adequate early age animals minerals, including ions Fe.
Conduct complex researches on the effects of iron hematopoiesis is important, as it allows to develop new methods of preventing early death of animals.
For the study were selected 35 newborn pigs of large white breed. The 3-day age pigs on the basis of unique split into seven groups of five animals each. Piglets control group not administered iron preparations. Pigs in the control group was administered saline at a dose of 2 ml. Piglets and II experimental forms were administered Brovaferan 100 (Fe-dekstran, 1 ml contains 100 mg Fe3 +) respectively 2 and 1 ml. Piglets III, IV, V research groups were injected intramuscularly Nanopreparat Fe (iron citrate in 1 ml contained 1 mg Fe) at a dose of 2, 1 and 0.5 ml, respectively. The animals of group VI under the scheme Studies 1 ml of the above products. Preparations introduced the third and eighth day of life.
Using of Brovaferan-100 for animals to the prevention of anemia contributed to a dose-dependent increase in the number of red blood cells and hemoglobin and blood. Application nano iron preparation Fe together with Brovaferen-100 contributes to 10-day age the number of red blood cells in 1,74 times. Using of Brovaferan-100 as single and both in the combination with nano iron preparation Fe promotes the growth of total bilirubin in the blood 5-day piglets and reduce its content to 10 days old.

Chronic toxicity of Mospilan for white mice

Bazaka G., Dukhnitsky V., Ischenko V.

Disorder dynamics generic process in cows dairy farms by season

Kharenko N.І., Grebenik N.P., Rislina L.V.

Pathological families of cows is the main reason growth rates postnatal pathology, significant medical costs cows with this pathology and growth rates of infertility females, decrease usage of breeding stock and premature rejection of cows from the herd, and, in some cases, their death and young shortfall.
AC "Sumy-Agro" and AC "Rassvet" in 2013 there were registered cases of pathological families in cows and 34 and 100, in 2014 – 150 and 40 respectively. Disorders of the generative process dynamics in cows for 2013 in the joint venture "Sumy-Agro" accounted for 47 %, and the joint venture "Rassvet" – 35,29 %. By 2014, these figures were – 40,66 % and 27,5 %. Our results indicate significant indicators of obstetric pathologies associated with the generic process in cows. Most pathological families (2013) caused by disorders of the dynamics of tribal forces.
Informative and analytical data on the main causes of abnormal labor in cows of dairy farms with different technology of their content, considering scasons and age of animals, and illuminate and analyse issues related to indicators and causes of violations of the dynamics of a generic process in cows, considering.
The main causes of pathological families in cows in farms with different technology content and different numbers of livestock are: disorders of the generative process dynamics, the birth canal pathology, pathology of fruits and improper relationship to fetal birth canal of the mother and litter delay, dried families and other reasons.
Most pathological families in cows caused by disorders of the dynamics of tribal forces recorded in the winter-spring season, and the main causes of disorders of the dynamics of families - weak and excessive contractions and power.
Weak contractions and power more registered cows from the 6th po11 calving and nadmirnipereymy and power - from the 1st to the 6th calving.
The results of research in the future enable us to analyze daily dynamics of the weak and excessive labor and power that will establish clear prevention of obstetric pathologies and develop effective therapeutic schemes provide effective assistance during childbirth.

Pathogenetic regulation oxidant status dogs for breast neoplasia

Bely D.D.

Efferent link of the pathological process in tumor growth is the free radical oxidation of lipids, which determines the severity of the disease, the nature of complications, including the development of "coagulation cancer" and in general, the outlook for this disease. Oxidative stress is closely associated with inflammation.
To date, many existing numerical facts which indicate the existence of bilateral communication between tumor growth and functional state of hemostasis. Elements of hemostasis, such as Tissue factor, thrombin, fibrin, plasminogen activator, plasminogen, platelet, anti-thrombin III, the most influence on the progression of neoplasia well. In this regard, the increased interest to specialists molecular-cellular mechanisms intractable diseases, the possibility of normalization secondary nonspecific metabolic disorders, which are formed during development of the disease, with the inclusion of adjuvant therapy pathogenetically substantiated pharmacological therapy.
Given the urgency of the problem was the goal of research - to determine the effectiveness of pharmacological correction of oxidative status in dogs for tumors of the breast.
In studies, it was found that at the time of initial admission ceruloplasmin levels ranged widely - from high to low. In particular, the average malignant tumors accounted for 39,75 ± 7,34 / 18,3 ± 6,09 mg / l, benign - 37,87 ± 0,57 / 18,75 ± 7,58 mg / l. Moreover, in the first case, the ratio of patients with high / low concentration was 50:50%, the second - 33,33 / 66,67%. Statistically significant differences ceruloplasmin content depending on the process of malignancy was found.
The level of malondialdehyde in the preoperative period exceeded the performance of healthy animals: for benign tumors was 14,5 ± 0,52 mmol / l, malignant - 21,0 ± 0,77 mmol / L for the physiological norm 9,8 ± 0,45 mmol / l.
The postoperative period was characterized by increasing concentrations of both markers with maximum values on day 3 followed by a tendency to normalization of. The analysis of the evidence that the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs causes more rapid purchase oxidative stress compared to low molecular weight heparins (advance amounted to an average of 4 days).It should be noted, that was a direct correlative relationship between the content of malondialdehyde and ceruloplasmin, due to their biological functions.
Thus, proved the presence of oxidative stress in dogs for breast cancer, as well as the positive impact of pharmacological correction that by optimizing the flow of pathogenic mechanisms eliminate violations oxidant balance. That is proven pharmacological correction schemes have both scientific and practical value and can be recommended for implementation in practice veterinarians.

Changes in plasma fibronectin with pyometra in cats

 Vusyk D.A.

The content of plasma fibronectin was investigated in the serum of healthy cats between gender balance in pregnant cats and in cats by various manifestations pyometra. Also determine the dynamics of plasma fibronectin during the medical treatment of cats.
The search of new indicators for the formulation of differential diagnosis, prognosis and effective treatment of cats are laid down with pyometra is one of the urgent problems of modern veterinary gynecology. In this regard, interest increases for the investigation of multifunctional adhesive protein fibronectin. The content of plasma fibronectin was investigated in blood serum of healthy cats during sexual balance, of pregnant cats and cats are laid down with various manifestations of pyometra. Also determine the dynamics of plasma fibronectin during medicine treatment of cats. The average content of fibronectin of healthy cats is 209,16±12,56mg/ml in pregnant cats is 217,7 ± 13,91mg/ml. Cats are laid down with pyometra with different severity of the disease, the concentration of fibronectin was 328,3 ± 41,22mg/ml. Reduction of plasma fibronectin of cats are laid down with pyometra correlated with disease activity. Results of the study indicate that definition content of plasma fibronectin can be used in clinical practice as an additional criterion for assessing the severity of the pathological process of cats are laid down with pyometra. Assessment indicators of plasma fibronectin in the treatment of cats are laid down with pyometra, the emergence tendency to increase, along with other clinical and laboratory tests, reflecting a positive trend and can be used as one of the criteria for improvement of the patients.
The results of our studies have shown that plasma fibronectin levels depended on the degree of severity of pyometra. With an average severity of pyometra state level fibronectin almost no different from the level in healthy animals. Reducing plasma fibronectin for pyometra in cats correlates with disease activity. Evaluation indicators of plasma fibronectin in the treatment of cats for pyometra, the appearance of its tendency to increase, along with other clinical and laboratory tests, reflecting the positive trend and can be used as one of the criteria for the improvement of the patients.

Efficiency application «Cocktail woman giving birth» at weak childbirth in dogs

Dmitrenko N.I.

The grants of medical help conducted the location of degree of opening of cervix of the uterus afterdetermination. For determination of efficiency of medicinal preparation for stimulationof reductions of uterus by us two groups of animals wereformed for 5 heads in each. Traditional means – Oxytocinumwere entered the dogs of the first group in a dose 0,3 ml/10 kg of weight intramuscular. Thus an effect appeared through 3-7 min and lasted 1-3 hours there can be strong activity ofuterus at the overdose of Oxytocinum. Hereupon there arehypertensive tetaniform reductions of uterus, that in turnresults in the break of uterus, post-natal bleeding, changesfrom the side of cardiac, hypoxia and death.
A cocktail was entered the females of the second group for giving birth glucose 5-% (4 ml), of calcium of gluconate (4 ml), ascorbic acid (2 ml). A cocktail was entered intramuscularin a dose by 2 ml on 10 kg of weight. This cocktail is thesoft stimulator of childbirth, luing-ins pass withoutapplication of Oxytocinum and simultaneously warning ofpost-natal eclampsia goes. A stimulant action substantiallydiffers a cocktail from the mechanism of action of Oxytocinum and east with him preparations.
Oxytocinum "works" at the level of nervous fibres, stimulatingreduction of muscles of uterus, and cocktail – stimulatesreduction of shallow blood vessels, not touching nerves, the "tiredness of uterus" does not come that is why. In addition – a cocktail shuts out the breaks of uterus and bleeding. A dose was expected going out ordinary weight of female (without puppies). During the process of luing-ins it maybeseveral times to conduct introduction of preparation as, aswe marked already, the "tiredness of uterus" did not come. So for females that for stimulation of childbirth entered a cocktail duration of fights hesitated from 2,5 to 5 hours, here the amount of puppies in a brood presentedto 5 chairmen from 3. In the first experience group, wherestimulation was conducted by means of Oxytocinum of fights proceeded from 6 to 18 hours at the same amountof puppies in a brood.
During three twenty-four hours after luing-ins continued toenter a cocktail 1 one time per days in a dose 2 ml on 10 kg of weight with the aim of more rapid selection of mucuses and cleaning of uterus and with the aim of prophylaxis of after luing-ins eclampsia. For the females of the secondexperience group an uterus almost fully cleared up on 7-9 day, and in the first group this period lasted on the average 24 days, however for one animal looked after tracks ofexcretions yet and on 36 twenty-four hours after luing-ins.
For warning of hypoxia of new-born we used the traditionalmethods of urgent help (warming, grinding et cetera) andrealization of classic reanimation of puppies – released amouth and nose from mucus, carefully ground and, reliablyfixing in hands, intensively shook off puppyhindlimbs upwards. In cases when these procedures it wasnot enough applied the indirect massage of heart by arhythmic clench the fingers of thorax of puppy with frequency 16-24 times on a minute. This manipulation was conducted until work of heart is notnormalized. In case of proceeding in breathing wipe drys apuppy, laid on a warm hot-water bottle and wrapped up. In afew minutes put to the most sucklings nipples, preliminarystamping the drop of milk from them.

Histological changes in the ovaries cats patients pyometra

Omeljanenko N.N., Garkusha S.E., Starenka А.S.

Pyometra - a very common disease of cats. It is characterized by the accumulation of pus in the uterus, and the appearance of the animal excreta.
This life-threatening condition that requires intervention veterinarian as soon as possible. Previously it was thought that pyometra is more common in older cats, but recent studies refute this opinion. Sick all - and those who give birth, and young animals.
Delays in identifying symptoms and delayed assist the animal in many cases results in the death of the animal.
Diagnosis of the disease sufficiently mature, and in clinical practice, there is no difficulty. Especially in severe cases. The early stages of the disease occur hidden and their diagnosis is still not sufficiently developed. Also limited reports of histological structure of individual parts of the uterus and oviducts of different functional states of cats. Therefore, the aim of the authors was to investigate the histological changes in the ovaries of patients cats pyometra.
The article presents the results of histological changes in the ovaries at pyometra in cats. Work performed in veterinary clinics of Kiev and at the Department of Pathological Anatomy of the National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine.
Hysterectomy with ovaries in surgical treatment of 3 cats suffering from pyometra were transported to the Department of Pathological Anatomy of the National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine for histological studies.
Histological studies were performed by the standard technique, histological sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin Karatsu. Formulations studied under a microscope BIOLA P12.
As a result of histological studies of patients with ovarian pyometra cats has been found that the stroma was luteal corpus luteum polygonal cells and nuclei were dense lymph channeled slits. Follicles deep layer of the cortex in the stage of ovarian atresia. Atresia accompanied by detachment and degeneration of the follicular epithelium and egg resorption. In the future we plan to spend histochemical studies of ovarian cats patients pyometra.

Modern approaches of subclinical mastitis treatment in cows

Zhuk Y.

For the treatment cows with mastitis are generally using drugs which contain antibiotics. However, the use antimicrobial medicines in the treatment of inflammation of the mammary gland of lactating cows cause ingress of inhibitory substances in the milk. Antibiotics are an obstacle for milk processing. That’s why the milk processing enterprises are strictly control the availability of antibiotics in the milk.
Therefore, the elaboration, the study of therapeutic efficacy of the antibacterial drugs based on silver nanoparticles in cows with mastitis and their implementation into practice for veterinarians today in Ukraine is important.
The objective of this investigation is to study the therapeutic efficacy of the Mastilin in the treatment of cows with subclinical mastitis. Therapeutic efficacy of Mastilin compared with Mastisan-A forte which was used on the farms for the treatment of cows with subclinical mastitis. The studies were conducted on Ukrainian black-and-white breed cows, 3 to 5 months of lactation, 4 to 6 years of age, 3500 to 4300 kg milk per lactation.
The control group cows (n=20) were injected intracisternally Mastisan-A forte after drew off milk of the affected udder, a dosage of 10 ml once daily with 24 h interval until full recovery.
The experimental group cows (n=20) were injected intracisternally Mastilin in dose of 10 ml twice daily. This drug is a physiologically active mixture of organic and highly dispersed systems, obtained by infusion of propolis in alcoholic solution, by the consecutive introduction of silver nanoparticles.
A Mastilin has showed 100 % therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of cows with subclinical mastitis with active ingredients of the silver nanoparticles and propolis. The duration of treatment cows is averaged 3.6 days. Usage of the new generation veterinary drug Mastilin provides the absence milk timeout period. Milk can be consumed after treatment. This is an alternative to use antibiotics in the treatment of mastitis.

Distribution, dіagnosis and treatment of horses with ulcerative lesions of the lips on the basis of equestrian sports complex SOR «Chutovsky stud «Trakia»

Kulinich S.M.

The article presents data on the prevalence of ulcers in horses mouth, held cytological and mycological research, and treatment of sick animals.
In conducting clinical examination were found for the horses, 5 chapters, with ulcers on the lip mucosa lesions were diagnosed in September with 100% of cases they were stallions.
In particular found that ulcers were clinically dirty color, with necrosis of the edges, the presence of purulent exudate. Visually ulcer had dirty color, with edge necrosis, presence of purulent exudate under which exhibited surface oozing red. Was also pronounced inflammatory swelling and redness around the ulcer.
Small ulcers cleared of necrotic tissues and purulent exudate, observed the appearance of fine granulation at the bottom and the edges of ulcers. On the outskirts noted the ulcer scarring and epithelization from the edges. In smears from the mucous membrane of the lips of sick animals noted the increase in the number of epithelial cells. The last were in a state of degeneration and necrosis.
Microbiological study of necrotic tissue samples isolated and identified five species of fungi and two species of bacteria.
After the primary surgical treatment (removal via tampon purulent necrotic masses) on the surface ulcers aerosol applied from a distance of 20-30 cm from the surface of the ulcer drug PVP iodine spray (PVP YOD spray) company JSC "Bioveta" Czech production.
In their studies, we have for objective evaluation of changes of the pathological process during the treatment and did clinical research drew. To do this with a ruler measuring defects was performed on the first, third and 14th day. In clinical changes assessed the nature and availability of surface ulcers selections.
Area wound surface in animals during treatment significantly decreased example, on the third day of initial data regarding the average defect reduction was 22,8 %. According to the 14 days of the defect reduction relative to baseline data was 4,2 times and 3,3 times relative performance on the third day.
Clinically, starting from the third day observed defect reduction and disappearance of purulent exudation. Further napovzannya noted the epithelial surface ulcers.
It is proved that the treatment of patients using the drug horses PVP iodine spray has quite effective and promotes rapid wound defect size.

Patomorphological changes in spleed of cats at chronic kidney insufficiency

Gunich V.

Purpose of researches - in detail to learn pathomorphological changes in the spleen of cats at chronic kidney insufficiency.
Material and methods of researches. A pathoanatomical dissection was conducted by the method of the partial evisceretion. Paraffin cuts from the pieces of cats spleen painted by the hematoxylin and eosin.
Results of researches. It is set on a dissection, that for all cats which died from chronic kidney insufficiency, spleen languid, diminished in a size, the capsule of her is not tense, on a cut a grittiness is poorly expressed, scrapes mashes insignificant. In parts of animals a spleen, in spite of her languor, was some close-settled.
During realization of histological researches in parts of cats an amount and sizes of lymphoid nodules were considerably diminished. For other animals they did not appear in general. Red pulp was notedly diminished in a volume. A considerable percent of erythrocytes was on the different stages of destruction. In all cats characteristic signs was presented by the infiltration of red pulp of spleen a by plenty of monocytes and macrophages, and also relatively small amount of lymphocytes.
All arteries and part of veins were partly spasmed. The sladg-phenomenon was registered in inlightening of part of arteries and all veins. Endothelial cells were in a state of grain dystrophy, and part of the dystrophic changed cells collapsed. Smooth muscles cells of media were in a state of grain dystrophy and were confused.
Conclusions. 1. In the spleen of cats which perished from the chronic kidney insufficiency, registered diminishing to the amount and sizes or complete disappearance of lymphoid nodules. 2. Characteristic is atrophy of red pulp, increased disintegration in her of erythrocytes and her infiltration by phagocytes. 3. Arteries and veins were partly spasmed, the sladg-phenomenon appears in them.

Microscopic change of oocytes and follicles in ovaries of hens at the egg drop syndrome

Shatsilo E.

Purpose of researches – in detail to learn pathomorphological changes in oocytes and follicles of ovaries of hens at the egg drop syndrome.
Material and methods of researches. Pathoanatomical dissection of 37 hens was conducted by the method of the partial disemboweling. Paraffin cuts from the different areas of ovaries painted by the hematoxylin and eosin.
Results of researches. For chickens, patients on egg drop syndrome, the stroma of cortex in the area of primary oocytes was distinctly edematous. A yet greater edema appeared round primary oocytes (pericellular edema). Part of the formed primary oocytes had a wrong form. Around secondary and tertiary follicles an expressive edema was registered. In tertiary follicles in part of cases registered edema between a follicle epithelium and yolk, and in a place of oocyte appeared oxyphilic spot of the rounded or oval form without a clear structure. Part of tertiary follicles was deformed. In quaternary follicles was registered the grain dystrophy of part of cells of theca interna, and in some cases – discomplexation of them. An external theca was edematous. Part of her cells was in a state of grain dystrophy, or collapsed. Yolk in many quaternary follicles only was placed painted out by the eosin, that testified to it violation.
In the nuclei of part of epithelial cells of many follicles on the different stages of their development the intranuclear basophilic inclusion-bodies appear, and nucleoplasm was acquired enough expressive oxyphilic properties.
Conclusions. 1. In the ovaries of hens at the egg drop syndrome the change of form of primary oocytes and expressive edema around these cells are registered. 2. An expressive edema appears round all follicles, in part of tertiary follicles – their deformation and complete loss of structure of oocytes, and in part of quaternary follicles – edema of theca, discomplexation grain dystrophy and destruction parts of its cells. 3. The basophilic inclusion-bodies come to light in nuclei of many follicles on the different stages of its development. Nucleoplasm of part of such nuclei becomes oxyphilic.

Diagnostic algorithm changes of lung pattern in dogs for computed radiography

Obruch M.N.

Today, developed and implemented in practice the latest radiological methods of animal studies are limited to implementation and evaluation of radiographs of the thoracic cavity.
The various pathological processes cause changes in lung pattern. The weakening of the lung pattern of diffuse nature shows hemodynamic disturbances.
If expanded arterial vessels in roots, it indicates a hypertension in pulmonary arteries due to mitral stenosis, pulmonary emphysema, diffuse lung disease. If blood vessels in the roots narrow, it indicates hypovolemia (pulmonary stenosis).
If the evaluation of modified vascular pattern is important to establish its spread (diffuse or local), and therefore is determined by the substrate (hemodynamic disturbances or destruction of lung tissue), the nature of lung pattern due to interstitial component of this is independent. Interpretation of the substrate is not possible without taking into account the underlying disease.
Linear interstitial component observed at peribronhite, diffuse connective tissue diseases, vasculitis, lymphangitis, interstitial pulmonary edema, and others. Honeycomb pattern observed in chronic nonspecific interstitial lung disease (sarcoidosis, lymphangitis, etc.)
The identification of the nature of these changes, certainly contributes to the diagnosis of the disease, the definition of severity and prognosis of the lesions. The algorithm it is requirement for the phased implementation in a defined sequence of elementary operations to solve problems of this type (class). There is in radiology for each class of problems - for each driving shadow syndrome can develop your solution algorithm. The sequence of actions of the doctor by making a diagnosis is called a diagnostic algorithm. There are not many syndromes and each of them covers dozens of diseases. The refore, using a small number of algorithms can recognize almost all diseases.
The basis of assessment of lung pattern in dogs with computed radiography should be a change in its quantity and morphology of the substrate. When lung diseases in dogs to detect X-ray changes in the form of strengthening or weakening the lung pattern. The application we developed a diagnostic algorithm changes in lung pattern is important in the diagnosis of pulmonary diseases in animals, flow forecasting disease and monitor the effectiveness of treatment.

Diseases of ostriches: etiology and means of struggle
Dolbanosova R.V.
Prevention of diseases of young cattle
Ulko L.