Серія Тваринництво, 2014, Вип. 7 (26) (en)

Influence of origin by father and linear belonging on economic useful traits of cows

Hladiy M.V., Polupan Yu.P., Bazyshyna I.V., Polupan N.L., Bezrutchenko I.M.

The aim of the research was to determine the phenotypic specificity by basic selected traits of exterior groups half-siblings by father and cows of various linear affiliation with assessment of power impact these genetic factors.The study is based on the primary breeding records in the herd of one of the leading breeding plant for breeding of Ukrainian Red dairy cattle in Ukraine. Experimental animals calved during controlled period, are daughters of 36 sires from 18 lines and related groups. For a comparative analysis was calculated average expression of economically useful traits in 16 groups of half-siblings by father with more than 20 daughters and ten groups of cows different lines and related groups.
The significant level of differentiation between the groups of half-siblings by the father and the different linear belonging was found by the basic selected traits of exterior, milk yield, reproductive ability, longevity and efficiency of cow lifetime use. It indicates the possibility of successful selection by the way of the advantageous use of the best proven bull and sires of the best breeding lines. Be-tween-group difference for some features reaches to 89,6%. Origin by father causes 6,0-40,0 %, and belonging to line or consanguineous group is 3,2-34,1 % of general phenotypic variability of considered signs.
The cows from the sires of the lines of Holstein and Holsteining Intrabreed Type (HRD) of Ukrainian Red Dairy breeds have considerable advantage by breed belonging. The animals from the sires of the lines of Angler and Rich-Milk fat Intrabreed Type (FRD) of Ukrainian Red Dairy breeds have worse manifestation of traits by breed belonging. Longevity and efficiency of lifetime use of sire daughters of Holstein cattle and HRD don’t be inferior, but they even exceed with reliability (P < 0,001) sire daughters of Angler breed and FRD.

Exterior features highly productive cows ukrainian brown dairy breeds

Bondarchuk L.V.

Market relations in modern economy of Ukraine cause the necessity creation of highly productive herds and populations of dairy cattle that conform requirements of modern technologies of industrial production. In this regard there was an objective necessity of use resources highly productive animals, which are a definite indication of the genetic potential of breed, which is implemented in certain economic-natural environments. Evaluation and selection of dairy cattle for conformation and constitution is the event, which is closely linked to general method of selection-breeding work for improvement herds in specific conditions of economy, despite the fact that most populations of Brown cattle require qualitative improvement certain traits of exterior.
To determine influence on formation for the exterior cows genetic factors and environmental conditions, the study was conducted in two flocks cows-recordsman Ukrainian Brown dairy breed in the breeding farms "Victoria" Bilopilskiy district and in the experimental farm Institute of agriculture of North-East of the National Academy of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine, Sumy district, Sumy region. Milk yield per cow in farms is 4969-6693 kg, respectively. Cows have a pronounced dairy type, body, back, rump width, straight, wide enough, without flaws and defects. The udder is of the correct form, in most cup-shaped or rounded.
According to results of exterior evaluation of the performance high yielding cows Ukrainian Brown dairy breed found a significant connection between measurements in exterior signs and indicators of milk production. However, exterior traits of animals largely depend on paratypic factors from conditions of their embryonic and postembryonic development. The prospect of further studies for assessment of animals type by body structure and their productivity will allow for effective selection of animals.

Assessment of cows of ukrainian black spotted breed by milk composition

Gorelova V.M.

Milk is indispensable food stuff. Thus, the problem of increasing milk production of cows to improve milk composition is important.
The aim of the study was to determine the composition of milk of cows of different genotypes of Ukrainian black and white dairy cattle of Central Eastern interbreed type and make a comparative evaluation between the study groups.
The study was performed on cows of Ukrainian black and white dairy cattle Central Eastern interbreed type of different genotype (3 groups of cows of 25 heads in each group 1 - Canadian, group 2 – Dutch, and group 3 - Danish selections).
Milk production was determined for 305 days of lactation by control milking each decade. The evaluation was performed individually by mean values of cow production in the third lactation: milk yield per lactation; chemical properties of milk, i.e. density, protein, fat, dry matter, lactose, nonfat milk solid defined using milk quality analyzer "Laktosksan - 90" during control milking. The obtained results were statistically processed using techniques of M. Plohinsky (1970)
According to the research the highest density values were determined in Danish animal genotype (P> 0.95). Milk density of cows of all experimental groups was within the requirements of the standard for high-quality milk. The analysis of content of lactose in milk samples revealed a small but significant advantage of group 3 of cows (P> 0.95). Milk of the cows of Danish group was the most nutritious and contained more nonfat milk solid (P> 0.95). The experimental data showed that the milk of cows of different genotypes contained on average 12.52% of dry matter. The highest milk yield per lactation was detected in the cows of Danish genotype. By the content of protein and fat in the milk the animals of Danish group also prevailed, but significant differences in these parameters between the groups was not detected.
Based on the results it can be concluded that the cows of Danish genotype are characterized by higher milk yield, milk composition when compared with the other investigated genotypes.

The analysis of the selection and genetic situation in the breeding herds of dairy cattle breeding in the Kirovograd district

Ilyashenko G.D.

In the work there were calculated and analyzed the basic genetic and population indicators for Ukrainian red, black and red-and-white dairy stocks of the breeding farms of the Kirovograd region. It was determined the influence of separate genetic and environmental factors on milk productivity and a reproductive ability of cows.
By the analysis of the intensity of the formation of the body mass of young stock it was set its highest growth in heifers in the controlled herds in the period from 9 to 12 months. The level of growth of the body mass of animals of the Ukrainian red dairy breed during this period was 75 kg, of the Ukrainian red-and-white it was 61kg, and of the Ukrainian black-and-white – 73 kg. In the study of exterior of the firstborn cows it was not founded a reliable interbreed difference.
It was established that the animals of the Ukrainian red dairy breed significantly (P < 0.001) prevailed the analogues of the Ukrainian black and red-and-white dairy breeds for the indicators of the milk productivity. There were revealed quite significant coefficients of frequency for all excluded features of the milk productivity which varied (from rs = 0,50 to rs = 0,79) by the high degrees of probability P <0,001.
From the excluded genetic factors a significant effect on the variability of the traits of the milk productivity has the origin for a father (from 42 to 73%) and the cows belonging to a line or a related group (from 20 to 52%). In most cases, a higher level of heritability was founded in animals of URD on the grounds of the yield and output of milk fat. From the environmental factors the most significant effect (from 21 to 34%) has the year of calving.
It was founded that the age of first and subsequent calvings of cows in the experimental herds remained on the high level. The average age of first calving of cows in days corresponds the calving in the age of 32,9-36,4 months. By the correlation analysis it was founded the highly reliable reverse connection of the age of calving with the milk yield of cows and output of milk fat in the first three lactations.

Structure of hair-covering as a test for the estimation of cattle thermostableness

Katsy G.D.

Through the efforts breeders from different countries, including Ukraine, were created new breeds of farm animals. However, their ability of adaptation to changing climatic and technological conditions has not been studied. The hair, forming a protective covering of mammals, plays an important role in maintaining the relative constancy of body temperature, progress of Mammals class. Indicators characterizing properties of hair, a lot. We share the view of those scholars who argue that hair length and ratio of fiber fractions (fluff, transition, awn) are essential when evaluating the thermal stability of cattle. Modern cattle easier to tolerate cold than heat .Therefore, reaction life-support systems during the summer period we are interested first of all. Especially if there are animals from different ecological zones. The aim of this work is to study seasonal changes in the structure of hair, optimizing thermoregulation in cattle acclimatization, newly established and local breeds, farmed in the steppe zone of Ukraine.
Seasonal variability of quantitative indices, characterizing structure of hair modern cattle, depends on the genotype, conditions of welfare, direction of productivity, (meat or milk).
In summer, cows of meat breeds, height of hairline is reduced more than half, from milk – 1/3 in comparison with winter features. The coarsening of hair is on average 26.1 %. The most coarsening is marked in Gray Ukrainian and Simmental cattle in the herd of experimental farm "Askania-Nova", where animals are kept with minimal human impact. Cows of Simmental breed were imported as heifers from Austria in Sumy region.
The structure of hair cover in summer has changed considerably, conditions of heat transfer has improved: fine fractions of hair in cover decreased and top hair fibers is increased. The most responsive cows were Gray Ukrainian cattle and Simmentals.
About reaction of hair follicles calves, it can be argued that patterns of keratogenesis inherent to cows, largely remain, exception of Ukrainian meat breed. In conditions of Dnepropetrovsk region in calves of this breed ratio of fluff is increased, and transition hair – decreases, number of guard hairs has not changed. In this condition hair covering calves Ukrainian meat breed, as it was shown by us earlier, recorded activity other links of transfer leather heat – sweat and sebaceous glands.
Morphometry of hair, first of all, in terms of fibers length and the ratio of fractions (fluff, transition, awn) gives an indication of condition and effectiveness of thermal mechanisms protection and heat transfer in the system of body thermoregulation, as well as its plasticity or adaptability. The availability of the bio-object, simplicity of operation and minimal of costs gives you the opportunity to gain valuable information and use it to assess the ability of acclimatization of cattle.

Hair covering peculiarities of aberdeen angus stock at whole year outdoor run

Kolesnik A.I., Prudnikov V.G., Katsy G.D.

Considering hair animal as a biological object, article presents research results hairline steers and heifers of Aberdeen-Angus and Angus created by Ukrainian meat breeds year-round on paddock in the Eastern region of Ukraine. Hairline difference between studied breeds from other meat breeds of cattle was found for their high content of fluff. Seasonal dimorphism is pronounced, but neither sex nor intertype constitutional differences are not installed. In winter of studied animals of Aberdeen-Angus breed, length of hair, regardless of gender increased to 12.4 – 15.4 mm, and thickness, on the contrary, reduced by 11.8 - 13.4 µm.
All factions hair thinned. The ratio of coarse fractions (transition awn and hair) is reduced to fluff more than 4 times, i.e., physical mechanisms of thermal protection optimised animal in winter. In winter, density of hair is decreased by 20-24 %. Explain it's not so much influence of seasonal factors, how age-related growth of calves: in summer they were 8 and -12 in winter months. The differences between constitutional types in young Angus cattle is minimal. Only some superiority of British type calves in fluff ratio was installed (by 4.0 and 6.3 %), which in winter can increase the thermal protection, and in summer, conversely, to reduce the resistance of animal body.
The hair cover cattle of Aberdeen Angus breed different from other breeds, a high content of fluff, winter 60.0 - 68.2 % from all coating hair. Seasonal dimorphism is clearly manifested: in winter hair length 44.3 – 48.7 % and fluff 2.2 – fold and, conversely, the smaller thickness of fibers on 27,7 – 29,8 %, transient hair and awn 1.7 - 2.3 times. The ratio of coarse fibers to fluff summer 4.1 – 4.7 times more than in winter, which is conducive to effective heat transfer in the heat. In the cover calves in 8 - and 12-months no sex, no intertype constitutional differences are not installed.

Genetic structure of populations ukrainian black and white diari and ukrainian red and white diari breeds on the polymorphism QTL and STR markers

Kopylov K.V., Shelyov A.V., Kopylova K.V., Berezovskiy O.V.

Dependence cows milk production of ukrainian biack and white dairy cattle from live weight and age at the first insemination

Kuziv M.I.

Studies conducted on animals Ukrainian Black and White dairy cattle in the "Milk River" farm in the Sokal and Brody offices breeding reproducers "Breeder" Lviv region and plant breeding "Yamnytsya" Ivano-Frankivsk region.
Established that cows milk production is depending on their live weight at first insemination. In breeding farm "Yamnytsya" highest value of milk productivity and yield of milk fat were cow live weight which at first insemination was 400-419 kg. In the farm "Milk River" Sokal separation rates were highest in those cows which live weight at first insemination was 420-439 kg. In Brody separation between animals that at first insemination had a live weight of 420-439 and 440 pounds or more, and multiplication "Вreeder" also – 400-419 kg in the studied lactation milk production figures for the likely differences were found. Cows that had a lower live weight at first insemination, respectively, and have lower productivity.
In breeding farm "Yamnytsya" highest value milk productivity and milk fat yield were born, which osimenyly aged 487-547 days, however, probably only advantage they have over the animals, which osimenyly aged 548-607 days. For the second, third and better lactation between cows, are fertilized at different ages for milk production performance of reliable differences were found. In the farm "Milk River" Sokal separation milk production value and yield of milk fat for all lactation were lowest in cows, are fertilized at the age of 608 days or more in Brody branch – at the age of 548-607 and 608 days or more in multiplication "Вreeder"– at the age of 487 and 608 days or more. The Ukrainian Black and White dairy cattle heifers in Western Ukraine advisable to fertilize at the age of487-547days, or 16-18 months when they reach a live weight of 400 kg.

Performance of cows sumу intrabreed type ukrainian black-and-white dairy breeds depending on the types their stress

Levchenko I.V.

Improvement production of cattle breeding depends on the health status of animals and their ability to resist action of unfavorable factors of external environment that is constantly changing. Have any need for a substantial increase in number of studies on the productivity of fresh cows internally breed type of Ukrainian Black-and-White dairy breed depending on types of their stress-resistance. Research by scientific and economic experiences carried out in pedigree farm "Mykhailivka Lebedinsky district of Sumy region. The object of research were cows-heifers internally breed type of Ukrainian Black-and-White dairy breed.
Among the experimental herd revealed 62,3% of animals with high stress-resistance ( first type) of 15.4 and 10.0% from the average stress-resistance (second, third type) and 12.3% with a low (fourth type). Mass fraction of different types of stress-resistance in a particular generation of animals differs. For cows of first type the most characteristic was a cool drop-down curve is milking every minute, sometimes with minor conditionally-reflex inhibition of milk flow; for second and third – braking of medium intensity with coverage unconditioned reflex components; for fourth – strong inhibition of conditioned and unconditioned reflex component. As a consequence, curve of milk excretion drop sharply, and parameters of milk flow are low.
In selection and breeding of cows is necessary to take into account one of leading signs of body - reactivity. Summarizing research results it is necessary to emphasize that for highly stress-resistance animals peculiar to the best signs of suitability for machine milking, because of the more developed adaptive abilities. Their nervous system quickly brings body into a state of excitation under the action of stressor, but quickly returns to normal. Introducing these results into production, in future we can hope to reduce losses of milk and percentage of cows disposal, if we estimate animals by types of stress during the composition of production groups. Selective research on these signs will allow to increase number of animals with high potential of milk production in modern technological conditions that are constantly changing.

Linear classification of cows of the ukrainian red-and-white milk breed of the north-eastern region on an exterior type

Loboda V.P.

The aim of study is an in-depth definition of exterior type cows of Ukrainian Red-and-White dairy breed at this stage of selection for use methods of linear classification. Experimental studies conducted on number cows-heifers of Ukrainian Red-and-White dairy breed, which is bred in farms Romny branch "Raiz-Maximko" Romny district of Sumy region and Piskivske Bakhmach district, Chernihiv region. Assessment exterior type fresh cows was conducted by the method of linear classification according to latest recommendations of the ICAR at the age of 2-4 months after calving for two systems – 9-point scale, linear description traits 18 of both the exterior and 100-point grading system based on four complexes of selection traits, which characterize manifestation of dairy type and development of the body, condition of limbs and morphological quality of udder.
The level of assessment fresh cows controlled herds shows that degree of development main descriptive features of exterior, compared with a group, differ significantly above both the between and internally herd variability.
The level scores of descriptive traits fresh cows of both enterprises indicates a good development in height (6.5 and 6.8 points), they have a deep body (7.2 and 7.8 points), high score for angularity (6.3 and 6.9 points), which indicates good development traits of dairy type and posture of limbs (7.3 and 7.6 points) about their strength. From udder traits the highest score have firstborn for front udder attachment (6.8 and 6.9 points) and development of central ligament (6.4 and 6.6 points).
According to most descriptive traits are better looking cows of stud-farm "Piskivske" in comparison with peers of herd "Raiz-Maximko". A reliable advantage in their favour was found for rump height by 0.3 points (P<0.05), chest width – 0.3 points (P<0.05), depth of body – 0.6 points (P<0.001), angularity – 0.6 points (P<0.001), rump width – 0.4 points (P<0.001), rear legs set – 0.3 points (P<0.05), angle of hoof – 0.3 points (P<0.01) and udder depth – 0.7 points (P<0.001).
The high level coefficients of variation individual descriptive traits of the exterior indicate the need for improvement in some animals studied breeds at present stage of selection using appropriate selection of bulls-improvers, evaluated by type of their daughters.
The use linear methods of classification have allowed to define objectively characteristics and variability conformation traits of cows. Cows-heifers-controlled herds differ in the overall assessment by type with reliable higher rates (83.9 points) in animals of stud-farm “Piskivske”. Low score and high variability of individual descriptive linear traits indicates lack of directional selection and selection of animals on exterior type.

Peculiarities of genetic structure of different age groups of silver carp

Nagornyuk T.

Genetic structure of different age groups of silver carp of fish farm “Galitski” Ivano-Frankivsk region by using polymorphic genetic-biochemical markers – Rralb, EST, MDH, ME, CA has been investigated. There were calculated the frequency of allelic and genotypic variants, find out observed and expected levels of heterozygosity per each locus and level of average heterozygosity by all loci, calculated genetic distances and performed cluster analysis of genetic relationships between the different age groups of silver carp. By the frequency of allelic variants were observed peculiarities of their allocation in groups of yearlings and two-years age of silver carp by loci of Rralb, EST, MDH, ME, CA. The frequency of slowly and fast migrating allelic variants of studied loci in groups of three-years age of silver carp didn’t differ significantly. We observed credible excess of heterozygous individuals by studied loci which indicates that three-years age carp have unbalanced state of genetic structure. Highest level of average heterozygosity at locus was 77.2 % instead of expected, which was 50.2 %. Therefore it is necessary to control the state of genetic balance in this population. According to Nei’s statistics were counted genetic distances between different age groups of silver carp by the frequency of alleles and genotypes of five biochemical markers. Genetic distance between groups of two- and three-years age carp was (DN = 0.015), groups of yearlings and three-years age carp was (DN = 0,028) and groups of yearlings and two-years age was (DN = 0,043).
The results of our investigations allow us to state that genetic structure of the three-year age groups have a greatest contribution in the process of creation of population genetic structure of silver carp.

Milk productivity and reproductive ability of ukrainian black-and-white dairy cows on the leading stock-breeding farms of North Polissya region

Piddubna L.M.

Objective of research is study relationship between traits of milk productivity and reproductive ability of cows - heifers of Ukrainian Black-and-White dairy breed North - Polissya region, as well as genetic conditionality of these signs. The study conducted on the basis of two stud farms – private agricultural firm "Erchyky" and experimental farm "Ryhalske" of Zhytomyr region. The material was information about the breeding and productive use of 1370 cows-heifers Ukrainian Black-and-White dairy breed and results of their own research.
In heifers on both farms there is a clear pattern that increasing level of milk yield is accompanied by an increase in duration periods of reproduction. With increasing milk yield by 1000 kg the duration of service periods and calving interval firstborn PAF "Erchyky" increases in average on 28 days, EF "Ryhalske"– 16. The coefficient of reproductive ability decreases on 0.05 and 0.03, respectively. The exception is dry period, duration of which with increase productivity of cows tends to decline. The reason may be that this feature is determined not only by biological factors but also the level of zootechnical work and qualifications operators of machine milking.
Cows heifers of Ukrainian Black-and-White dairy breed are characterized milk yield for 305 days of lactation within 3953-4884 kg with fat content of 3.98 - 3.92 %. The reproductive ability of examined cows does not correspond to optimal parameters - age at first calving in the context of farms amounts 29.4-34.8 months, service period 139,4-159,6 days, coefficient of reproductive ability 0,86-0,90. Increasing milk production per lactation per 1000 kg leads to a prolongation of service period for 16-28 days, and decreasing coefficient of reproductive ability from 0.03 to 0.05. Milk yield cows is determined by genotypic factors (proportion of Holstein inheritance, linear supplies, genotype of father) on average by 28.9 %, age at first calving by 5.9 %, duration of service period by 5.3 %.

The influence of live weight of mother-cows on the gobies growth of different breeds

Podpalaya T. V., Grebenuk N. V.

From the studies of the influence of the mother's body on the offsprings live weight at birth and growth rate intensity it was determined that the gobies with greater live weight were obtained from the mother-cows with average and high live weight. This tendency was observed in the animals of Ukrainian black and white and red and white dairy breeds (control group) and Holstein and Ukrainian black and white dairy breeds (experimental group).
At the age of 6 months the advantage in live weight also had gobies whose mothers were cows with average and high live weight. However, this advantage was not determined in young Holstein breed (control group) and the Ukrainian red and white dairy breed (experimental group) at birth and at the age of 6 months. Among animals of the experimental group the gobies of Ukrainian red and white dairy breed obtained from the cows with low live weight had the highest live weight (226,5 kg) at the age of 6 months. High live weight is typical for the gobies whose mothers were the cows with average and high levels of live weight.
Some advantage of the gobies that are from the cows with low and average live weight was determined due to the indicators of the average daily growths. Significantly greater difference (123,3 g at P>0,95) according to the average daily gain of gobies was found in the Holstein breed (control group ) compared with their peers that come from mothers with high live weight. Experimental gobies of Ukrainian red and white dairy breed obtained from the cows with low live weight are characterized by the highest intensity of growth (average daily gain – 1027,3 g) for the period from the birth to the age of 6 months.
The intense body weight gain from the birth to the age of 6 months was proved on the basis of comparable data of the control and the experimental groups of the gobies that are specialized dairy breeds. The relative gain for animals in the control group during the period of 0-6 months was 123,84-138,15%, and in the experimental group was 125,91-147,27%. The gobies obtained from the cows with average live weight levels were characterized by the highest intensity of growth.
Thus, it was found that the live weight of mother-cows influences the growth rate of the specialized dairy breeds gobies in the period from their birth to 6 months. The gobies obtained from the cows with low live weight are characterized by a higher intensity of growth. Cubs which come from the mother-cows with average live weight have high intensity of growth.

The productive quality cows early on postnatal period

Pischan S.G., Litvischenko L.A.

The aim of research was to establish effect of high milk productivity Holstein cows at intensive technology exploitation in their reproductive function with artificial hormonal stimulation estrus and synchronization ovulation. Research conducted at the dairy complex “Agro-Soyuz”. Animals of Holstein breed were located in light barns with boxes for rest and forage feed for intake total mixed rations. Cows were milked in milking unit type “Parallel”. For research we selected animals with a potential for high performance. The criterion taken milk yield at an early stage of postpartum period, which must be greater than 33 kg per day.
The physiological activity of organism Holstein cows at satisfactory operating conditions is quite high. The highest productivity in lactating heifers, which per kilogram of live weight equals 25.4 kg of 4% milk, and for day of lactation and calving interval 27.6 - 30.8 kg of 4% milk, respectively.
At the industrial complex in milk production by intensive technology exploitation Holstein cows are characterized high milk yield. By intensive technologies and high exploitation of genetic potential Holstein cows total milk production is higher, than longer lactation period. Holstein cows from first to fifth lactations have quite high productivity, which for 305 days of lactation received almost 11000 kg 4% of milk and for full – 13580 kg.

Morphological and functional properties of cattle’s udder of different lines of ukrainian black-and-white dairy breed

Ponko L.P.

The development of the udder and its qualitative characteristics – are the critical parameters of suitability for machine milking cows. For this purpose –the shape, proportions and size of udder, teats placement (morphological features), the duration, intensity and simultaneity of milking, uni-formity of development (udder index) of quarters (functional properties) are defined.
Researches were conducted on the cows of Ukrainian black spotted dairy breed in conditions of SE EF «Pasichna» Starosynyavsky area, Khmelnitsky region. The influence of the lines on the morphological and functional features of cows udder has been exploring. The study of morphological characteristics of the udder was conducted by taking measurements of the breast, functional properties of udder were studied in the intensity of milk ejection.
It was discovered that cows of lines Butmeyke 1450228.63 and Valianta 1650414.73 domi-nated their peers of line R. Soverinha 198998 and S.T. Rokita 252803 in udder's circumference at 6-6,6 cm (P<0,05), in length – 3,5 (P<0,05) and 3,8 cm (P<0,01), in width of udder – 2,5-2,7 cm (P<0,05). Significant difference between animals of different lines in other measurements has not been identified.
Cows of lines Butmeyke 1450228.63 had the best milk yield per day, they dominated their peers at 1,9-3,5 kg (P<0,05). The difference in speed of milk and udder index between animals of different groups was not significant.
Analysis of morphological and functional properties of the breast shows that udder of cows of Ukrainian black spotted dairy breed mostly had a shape of cup or tub. The udder was well developed in length and width, the particles were developed uniformly, with cylindrical teats.
In general, morphological and functional characteristics and properties of udder of cows of Ukrainian black spotted dairy breed satisfy the modern requirements of machine milking.

Influence methods of selection on the milk-yield of cows by the ukrainian brown dairy breed

Pushkar I.V.

Given the important breeding aspect regarding internal and interline selection was investigated effectiveness of using these options for improvement of Ukrainian brown dairy breed for milk productivity traits. Experimental researches conducted in the herd "Ryasnyansky" Krasnopolye district for breeding of Ukrainian brown dairy breed.
Analysis productivity of daughters received from sires partenal line of Stretch 143612 in options interline breeding and different between-line crosses with maternal lines indicates that one of the most successful was selection of linear sires. The level of milk production by evaluating a sufficient number of sampling daughters, obtained from selection sires lines of Stretch 143612 with paternal and maternal sides of pedigree, wich had yield for the first and best of lactations 4919 and 6266 kg of milk attests to effectiveness and motivation interline breeding as method of breeding dairy cattle.
Efficiency interline selection was confirmed again in the breeding farm second stud line Elegant 148551.Yield daughters, used in linear-heeled producers in the first lactation averaged 5048 kg of milk per lactation best – 6645 kg. These figures were higher compared with peers of other lines, except offspring of Destiny and Stretch, according to the first and higher lactations with a significant difference in comparison with progeny lines Distinksha – 907 kg (P<0.01), Laylasana – 1124 kg (P<0.001) and Peyvena – 624 kg (P<0.05) on first lactation indicators.
Generalizing finding, suggests that the tested breed is quite structured by genealogical groups that are differentiated on the grounds of milk production.
The regularities in the aspect of linear breeding confirm feasibility of continuous monitoring is the combination of lines in further breeding Ukrainian brown dairy breed. Reapply most successful variants and rejection of ineffective will enhance genetic potential of cattle milk productivity.
It is established that not every interline breeding allows to get best results performance offspring, as well as between line cross, so it is necessary in the process of system monitoring selection information to find a good between-lines combination involving among successors lines - breeds leaders.

Evaluation growth and development of young in milk breeds

Savchuk O.V., Shcherbatyuk N.V.

The aim of the research was to study dynamics of development bull calves of Ukrainian Black-and-White dairy and Ukrainian Red-and-White dairy breeds. According to the principle analogues formulated two groups of calves (n=15 heads) of Ukrainian Black-and-White dairy breed, the second – Ukrainian Red-and-White dairy. Experimental animals were kept in similar conditions of a stud farm "Native land" Iziaslav district, Khmelnitsky region from birth to 6 months of age.
Analyzing productivity of experimental animals it should be noted that the highest live weight at birth had calves of Ukrainian Red-and-White dairy breed (34,4 kg), which is 9.0 percent more from animals of Ukrainian Black-and-White dairy, although the difference was unreliable. For the first three months average daily liveweight gain calves of the control group was 512 g, and the second at 149 g more reliable when control of difference. Absolute weight gain during first three months of experience was 47,0; 60,8 kg, respectively. High variability of growth during this period was Black-and-White animals (12,2-12,4%). For dairy period animals of Ukrainian Black-and-White dairy breed have in 706 g of average daily gain, Ukrainian Red-and-White dairy – 98 g more (P>0,99).
Analysis of development young dairy period characterizes of a good growth and sufficient harmony forms bodies of animals. Indices of body structure confirm a better development bull calves of Ukrainian Red-and-White dairy breed in relation to peers of Ukrainian Black-and-White dairy breed.

Peculiarities of meat productivity of Romanovskaya breed rams of ukrainian population of different constitutional and productive types

Sukharlyov V.A., Yakovlev K.I.

Most intensive breed of sheep in the world is romanovskaja Shubnaya meat breed that due to multiple births (up to seven lambs per lambing one) and polyestrous (up to two per year lambings) allows for ewe per year over 100 kg of lamb live weight to have.
After the introduction in 1991 of the Upper Volga (Yaroslavl region RF) Romanovs sheep breed successfully bred in all regions of Ukraine (Suharlev VA Yakovlev, K., 2011). As a result of the distinctive conditions of its breeding in Ukraine over the past two decades has developed Ukrainian population Romanovs sheep with constitutional and productive features.
In the Romanovs sheep lamb up to 95% of the value of the gross output. Since the main products of sheep in the world currently is lamb, then this feature Romanovs breed productivity puts it out of competition with other breeds of sheep. However, in the Romanovs sheep there are several constitutional types of sheep (K = 4, 7, 10), which differ in the level of productivity and product quality, it is generally used only the type of K = 7. Therefore, our task is to study the meat productivity generated intense constitutionally-productive type of Romanovs sheep (K = 4) in comparison with other types of constitutional Ukrainian population Romanovs breed.
Material investigations were Romanovs sheep herds FH "Peter" Dnipropetrovsk region. As provided in the Regulations on the herd classification of the Romanovs sheep (Wiley, 1984), experienced lambs were divided into three types of constitution (in relation of down beard hair to the of wool) and formed three groups: K = 4 (awn / down - 1:4-5), K = 7 (awn / down - 1:6-8), K = 10 (awn / down - 1:9-12). Growing and fattening lambs are executed according to Vijay, with their slaughter in the 7th age. Study quality lamb conducted in the laboratory of the Institute of Livestock steppe regions "Askania-Nova." According to our experiments constitutional type lambs K = 4 has a greatest live weight at birth – 3,2 kg, which is 8,1% more than the type of K = 7 and 18,5% of K = 10. Trend primary on live weight of lambs of K = 4 over the types of K = 7 and K = 10 is observed from birth to their implementation. Type K = 4 had a live weight, when removed from feeding 39,7 kg or more of K = 7 - 7.0% of K = 10 – 12,2%. Therefore, for the fattening period (from 3 to 7 months of age) in the ramlambs (K = 4) received average daily gain of 177 g / head, or more than the type of K = 7, 6%, and higher than that of K = 10 - by 10,8%. Defined in the Romanovs sheep live weight of sheep, in which they reach economic maturity (slaughter for meat or fertilization) - is 35 kg. In our experience the first group reached 35 kg live weight at the age of 186 days, the second - 200 days, the third - 210 days. That is, the type of sheep - K = 4 due to the high growth rate more preferable than K = 7-10. At the same time the signifiant of the difference of live weight at birth between groups of lambs K = 4 and K-7 - P < 0,01; K = 4 and K = 10 - P < 0,001. At the age of 1 month the reliability of these indicators, respectively between the types of K = 4 and K = 7 - P < 0,05; K = 4 and K = 10 - P < 0,001. Significant difference liveweight groups valushkov in periods 3 and 7 months of age P < - 0,001. The significfnt of the difference of weight gain ramlembs different types for the periods 4 and 7 months of age is high (P < - 0,001). As seen from Table 2, lambs slaughter weight of K = 4 was 38,6 kg, which is greater than K = 7 for 7,1% (P < - 0,05), and of the type K = 10 - 12,5% (P < - 0,01). Slangchter mass ramblamds of K = 4 was 18,6 kg or 10,4% more than in the type of K = 7 and above on the type of K = 10 – 18,8% (P < - 0,05 and P < 0,01). Slaughter yield different types of constitution lambs respectively differed by 1,5% and 2,6% (difference not significant). At the same time the significant of the difference in the coefficient meatnisses lambs observed only between the types of K = 4 and K = 10 (P < - 0,01). Significant difference sectional area of the longissimusdorsi muscle of lambs of different types were: K = 4 and K = 7 - P < - 0,1; K = 7 and K = 10 - P < - 0,05; K = 4 and K = 10 P < - 0,999. Composition percentages longissimusdorsiramlambs Romanovs breed different types of constitutionally-productive among some different, but statistically significant differences have not. Thus, these figures are within the boundaries of breeds features for this age group Romanovs lambs. Conclusions. Creating a constitutionally-productive type of sheep in Ukrainian population Romanovs breed meat-skin coat (due to constitutional culture of K = 4) allows you to have an intensive interbreed type, with the raised meat productivity and hence the high economic efficiency.

The contents of microelements in the blood of dairy and combined breeds in the western region of Ukraine

Fedorovych V.V., Babik N. P.

Genotypic and paratypic factors of influence on the signs of the milk productivity of cows of the ukrainian black-and-white dairy breed

Khmel'nichiy L.M., Vechorka V.V.

Given the polygenic inheritance of quantitative traits and significant impact on them a large number of genotypic and paratypic factors, the research identified extent to which they affect the implementation of traits milk productivity cows of Ukrainian Black-and-White dairy breed, which is important from both theoretical and practical points of view. Scientific-industrial research conducted in the herd of stud-farm "Vladana" Sumy region. The analysis coefficients of force influence paratypic factors, clearly indicates about sufficiently high and reliable impact on the volume milk yield of fresh cows factors year of birth ( =0,165) and calving ( =0,196). Share influence of season birth and calving on milk yield, although weak, but statistically reliable ( =0,105) and ( =0,085), respectively. From years of birth and first calving, fat content in milk from fresh cows depends only on - 10,7 and 7,4 %, and from season of birth and first calving - by 3,2 and 2,3%.
The level and reliability coefficients of force impact breeding value parents cows indicates that from sires in large extent depends volume of milk yield ( = 0,238) and fat content in milk ( =0,281) in animals of controlled herd. Reliable and significant impact on estimated traits of milkiness makes the line of father, which has on milk yield 23,1 % and fat content 17,7 %. Installed high and reliable coefficients of force impact breeding index of mother on milk yield ( = 0,227) and fat content ( = 0,322). The coefficients impact selective-breeding value of mother by the yield and fat content on milk yield ( = 0,142 and 0,192) and fat content ( = 0,191 and 0,219) also differed sufficient indicators of variability that shows the effectiveness of their use in breeding process for further improvement of the breed.
Among genotypic factors remains a substantial impact of conditional share of inheritance cows for Holstein breed and indicators characterizing the breeding value of paternal and maternal ancestors, which again confirms the conclusion about possibility of increasing efficiency of breeding Ukrainian Black-and-White dairy breed for selection of ancestors with a high rating of selection index and standard of breeding value.
According to results of the study justify the feasibility of monitoring breeding information, identify and use typical animals patterns of development of the leading signs of milk productivity, depending on the influence of genotypic and paratypic factors in the selection process of formation the stud herd.

Productivity cows of sumy type into a breed of the ukrainian black-and-white dairy breed depending on the level of estimation on linear classification of exterior

Khmel'nichiy S.L.

The purpose of the research study features exterior type fresh cows Sumy interbreed type of Ukrainian Black-and-White dairy breed with definition relationship of linear type traits with milk productivity of animals. The research was conducted in a herd of stud-farm Pidlisnivskoyi branch “Raiz-Maximko” Sumy region.
The research on linear classification suggest that the development of cows by conformation type moves in the direction of desired milk type. This statement is based on results of the evaluation on a 100-point system, which presents estimation of four conformation traits. Not significant variability (2,5 to 4,6%) the average scores for all conformation complexes indicate some consolidation of animals by exterior type. Estimation of descriptive traits fresh cows controlled herd showed that level of their development compared to a groups differs substantially higher inside herd variability (15,1- 31,4%).
The level assessment of descriptive traits of fresh cows indicates the good development of animals in height (6,9 points), they have a deep body (7,5 points), high score for angularity (7,2 points), which indicates the good development traits of dairy type and posture of limbs (7,7 points) on their strength. From udder traits the highest score have firstborn for attachment of front part (6,8 points) and development of central ligament (6,9 points).
According to results of research found that between the level of milk yield recorded for the first and third lactation and the value of assessment indicators on a 100-point system there is a reliable positive relationship. The level of milk productivity cows Sumy interbreed type of Ukrainian Black-and-White dairy breed is identical to the value of scores obtained for conformation type.
Using in breeding process methods of the linear classification is very effective means of objective determining breed features of exterior type dairy cows.
The high level coefficients variability of individual descriptive traits of exterior indicate the need for improvement in some animals studied breeds at the present stage of selection using appropriate selection of bulls-improvers, evaluated by type of their daughters. The prospect of further research using of modern methods linear classification will allow monitoring of biological patterns formation exterior cows Sumy interbreed type of Ukrainian Black-and-White dairy breed.

Estimation cows of the ukrainian black-and-white dairy breed on the indexes of the lifelong productivity and duration of the use

Shevchenko A.P.

The aim of this work was to evaluate cows Sumy interbreed type on indicators of lifetime productivity and duration of use at the present stage of selection. Research conducted in pedigree farms Pidlisnivskoyi branch “Raiz-Maxymko” and “First of May” Sumy region.
Analysis features variability of lifetime indicators of milk productivity and economic use of cows Sumy interbreed newly created type of Ukrainian Black-and-White dairy breed in the controlled herds showed a sufficient and reliable level between herd differences for most of them. Evaluation the selection information about withdrawal cows, including first-born, best milk productivity indices for life and period of economic and productive use was characterized by animals of the herd PF “First of May”.
For the duration of economic and productive use cow “First of May” exceed withdrawals livestock “Raiz-Maxymko” on 217 and 220 days, for number of calving per life of 4.0 and 3.4, respectively. By the index of economic use reliable difference in favor of the cow herd “First of May” was 5.1%.
The level of productivity and duration of productive use cows significantly affected the performance of their lifetime productivity, the best of which were animals of “First of May”. They dominated the herd "Raiz-maxymko” for a lifetime yield 4716 kg of milk and yield of milk fat is 173,8 kg. Milk yield for one day of economic and productive use was also higher in cows of the herd “First of May” from a highly reliable advantage of 1.3 and 0.9 kg of milk, respectively.
Installed between herd variability and insufficient indicators of lifetime productivity and duration of productive and economic use of cows in experimental herd demonstrates the necessity of monitoring breeding information on these indicators in breeding herds and the application of appropriate selection work for their improvement.

The productivity and quality indexes of eggs of laying chickens-hens are for feeding of feed addition of VAMZHK

Orishchuk O.S., Tsap S.V., Mykytyuk V.V.

The results of the research showed that including vitamin-aminoacid-mineral-fat complex (VAMZHK) in poultry feed experimental groups helped to improve the exchange of energy balance for amino acids, which has a positive impact on egg production and quality of the eggs.
For inclusion in the diets of laying hens II, III, IV research groups 2 %, 3 % and 4 % vitamin-aminoacid-mineral-fat complex rather than a similar amount of soybean meal contributed to increased productivity of poultry by 3,9 %, 8,5 % and 4,9 %.
Important indicators characterizing the level and adequacy of nursing quality indicators are eggs. Thus, the inclusion of feed 2 % instead VAMZHK similar amounts of soybean meal increased egg weight by 6,4 % in the yolk mass – 23,2 % mass shell at – 7,7 %. The largest mass of eggs was characterized Bird III experimental group, which were fed a diet consisting of 3 % VAMZHK – 68,81 g against 62,41 in the control. Yolk weight, shell weight and protein were higher by 9,6 %, 10,6 %, 12,2 % respectively.
Analyzing the shell thickness in laying hens II, III and IV research groups, we have found that the inclusion of feed additives in the diet led to its improvement. Maximum thickness and shell weight was found in laying hens IV research group, which is associated with a higher intake of calcium to the body of birds.
The introduction in the diet of laying hens feed additive research groups - VAMZHK led to increased power and value of eggs.
It should be noted that the lowest feed costs as of 1 kg yaytsemasy and 10 pc. eggs – 1,99 and 1,36 were observed in birds III experimental group, which were fed 3 % instead VAMZHK similar amounts of soybean meal. In laying hens II and IV research groups feed conversion at 10 units. eggs was higher by 4,1-4,7 %, compared to counterparts in the control group.

Effect level energy and protein power in performance indicators and south gas exchange cows meat breed

Tsvigun A.T., Pasnichenko M.M., Blyusyuk S.M.

The purpose of our research was the study of gas exchange parameters and productive-ness cows of a southern beef breed with the level of their energy and protein feeding in the dry period. The research on the basis of breeding farm, "Zelenogorsk" Lyubashevsky region of Odessa region were conducted during 2010-2011 according to standard techniques.
The results of analysis the impact of changes in the level of energy and protein supply on performance and gas exchange southern cows meat breed. The increase in the rate of feeding protein by 10% in cows during the dry period was found that has a positive effect on their per-formance and gas exchange parameters. Increase energy levels in the diets of experimental ani-mals caused no significant improvement.
The live weight of cows Taurian and Black Sea interbreedtypes at the beginning of the accounting period ranged from 529-536 kg. Weight of animals before calving in the second and third experimental groups was higher than that of the control, but not much. At the beginning of the grazing period in cows research groups, it was higher by 1,0-2,7%, than in the analogue pin and roll band. Milking cows (live weight for calves aged 210 days) was higher in cows second and third experimental groups compared to the control, and 8,9-10,0 on 4,8-5,3%, respectively.
The increasing the protein concentration to 10% to the existing norms of feeding cows during the last two months of the dry period was found a positive effect on the indicators of performance and gas exchange. Increasing the productivity of cows of the Tauride interbreed type had a higher degree of probability. The increase of energy level in the diets of experimental animals reliable improvement is not caused. In the future it is planned to study the effect of changes in the concentration of energy and protein in the diets of lactating cows in calf performance.

Dependence on the cheese ripening of the technological parameters

Bondarchuk Z.V.

For the purpose of establishing the influence of basic technological factors on the ripening and quality of cheese in the experiments examined the combined effect of the temperature of second heating cheese grains in the interval from 37ᴼ to 43ᴼ С mass fraction of water added during the processing of curd in an amount of from 5 to 15% and concentration of sodium salt in mature cheese (30 days) in the range from 0.8 to 2.4% at the level of active acidity, mass fraction of moisture and total soluble nitrogen. Experiments performed using three factorial experiment.
In all variants of the experimental cheeses of the index change of the active acidity had the same trend: it decreased with increasing temperature of the second heat and was increased with increasing amount of added water and pickles. Active acidity, the average of which for the temperature of second heat 37ᴼ С was of 5.55 units, increased to 5.25 and 5.30 units pH with increasing temperature up to 40ᴼ and 43ᴼ С respectively.
To change the active acidity is significantly influenced by the amount of added water and pickles. If you add 5% water to the level of active acidity was in the range from 5,16 to 5.23 pH units, adding 10% in the range from 5,31 to 5,21 pH unit, adding 15% from 5,22 to the pH of 5.36%. The average values of these indicators were 5.45; 5.30 and 5.25 units pH, respectively. Normal pH levels (5.25% and 5,30%) was observed in the level of pickles 1.6 and 2.4% and changed depending on changes of other settings in the interval from 5,23 to 5.33 and from 5.25 to 5.36 pH units, respectively. When the salt concentration is 0.8%, this figure was slightly higher - 5.6 units.
The addition of water does not significantly affect the moisture content of cheeses, however, there was a decrease in moisture with increase of the addition of water. Thus, average values of moisture accounted for 43.8; to 43.2 and 42.7% when adding 5, 10 and 15% water, respectively.
A significant influence on the moisture content of cheeses was the level of pickles. With increasing salt concentration indicators of moisture decreased. Most moisture had the cheeses with a low level salting, the average value of which was 44,88%. The average moisture decreased respectively to 43.3 and 42.6% with increase in salt concentration up to 1.6 and 2.4%. In cheeses with the salt concentration of 0.8% mass fraction of water changed depending on changes of other parameters from 43,0 to 47.7%, with a salt concentration of 1.6% from 42.5 to 46%, and a concentration of 2.4% from 41,5% to 44%.
When analyzing the regression equation it is established that the increase in the temperature of the second heat in combination with changes of other parameters resulted in the acceleration of aging, which resulted in increasing the amount of soluble nitrogen in the cheese, from 18.7% at a temperature of 37 С and up to 21,0 and 22,9% respectively 40 and 43 С.
If you reduce the amount of added water the level of proteolysis was slightly decreased. So the amount of soluble nitrogen was in the range from 18.0 to 24.5% when adding 5% of water, from 17.5% to 23.7% at 10% and from 16.9 to 23.0% when adding 15%.
When the salt content in mature cheese 0.8% the average content of soluble nitrogen was 21.9%, and fluctuations was in the range from 19,0 to 24.3%. When the salt content is 1.6%, the average content of soluble nitrogen decreased to 20.7%, while salt content of 2.4% to 19.9 per cent.
Analyzing the above it can be argued that all studied factors influenced the ripening process and quality of the cheese. Obtained data served as basis for development of technology a new type of cheese with a reduced ripening period and allow process control for the production of cheese of high quality.

The histological characteristics of muscle tissues under grinding and salting

Shchebentovska O.M.

The article presents the results of morphological tests of pig meat after grinding and salting. It was determined that in the process of grinding we observe the decomposition of muscle tissue structure, uniform mixing of fat and connective tissues. The crushed tissue becomes amorphous and practically endogenous mass where many fat globules and also crushed raw material particles. Mechanical destruction of muscle fibre structure causes intensive appearance of myofibrillar proteins that absorb water, swell and form porous structure that enhance the stability of finished forcemeat. The microscopic test detected fine-grained homogenous mass with numerous round or elongated vacuoles of different size that are thick with protein-fat substance. In the process of meat salting we observe complex of structural functional changes connected with physical chemical action of saline solutions on muscle structures. The permeability of cellular membranes, solution and appearance of proteins, local muscle proteolysis are increasing that causes change of structure and consistency of meat, creation of its specific taste, smell and appropriate technological peculiarities necessary for manufacture of finished meat products. During the process of meat salting we observed changes in surface and deep layers of muscle fibres. The cross cuts showed numerous microclefts, swollen lamellar muscle tissues and fine-grained protein mass.

Improving metabolism and immune status of young chickens with technology "artificial cuticle" (Artificial cuticle - article) to protect hatching eggs

Denysov R.V., Bordunova O.G., Chivanov V.D.

Bovine leukosis virus detection in milk by real-time PCR

Oblap R., Novak N., Dyman T.

Bovine leukosis virus (BLV) is one of the most wide-spread cancer diseases of agricultural animals. It brings many economic negatives because of animal death, low income of animal products and loss of unique gene pool of high-productive animals. Disease agent is leukosis virus, which belongs to Retrovіrіdae, Deltaretrovіrus. It is RNA-contained cancer virus of type С, it vital cycle consists of necessary stage of integration of DNA-copy (provirus) of virus genome into genome of infected animal. Bovine Leukosis is a serious problem for national cattle breeding in Ukraine for many years. Solution of this problem is possible with timely reliable diagnostics and isolation of infected animals.
Nowadays immunological and molecular-genetic approaches are applying in laboratory diagnostic of BLV. Different biological liquids, especially whole blood and serum are used as diagnostic material. At the same time blood sampling is one of significant difficulties of modern analysis methods because of its stressogenic for cows. There is an information in scientific literature about possibility of milk using as alternative source of diagnostic material.
We have designed the methodology of bovine whole blood DNA extraction and performed comparative tests for BLV diagnostics in blood and milk samples in this study. Provirus BLV DNA identification was provided by Real-Time PCR. We analyzed totally 10 milk and blood samples from the same animals. BLV infection of animals was previously confirmed by ELISA.
Performed analysis confirmed possibility of milk using for Real-Time PCR BLV analysis. But it has some limitations. In condition of relatively low concentration of virus in sample there is a possibility of false-negative results. Data obtained has to be further studied for high-effectiveness of amplification of milk-extracted DNA.

Chemical composition quail meat grown with the use of nano-silver

Patreva L., Groza V.

Necessity of prohibition for antibiotics, hormonal and other stimulates of the productivity of birds has appeared in the conditions of enhanceable demand on the ecologically clean products of the poultry farming. In this connection, the search of the new alternative ways activated for increasing the productivity of birds.
Application in the poultry farming of Ukraine the preparations based on nano-silver, as a substitute of antibiotics, causes a necessity of scientific research. Compared to antibiotics, preparations of silver are not accumulated and quickly enough hatch out from an organism.
In our time there is a row of scientific and practical information about positive influence of silver contain preparations on the productivity of bird, vital functions and natural resistance.
However, in accessible literature materials on silver preparations are not existed and how they influence on the high-quality indexes of the poultry farming products which grounds to consider this question both in scientific and to the practical plane.
For determination of influence the silver preparation of «Argenvit» on chemical composition of quail muscular fabric four groups of bird are formed for 60 heads, groups is formed by principle of analogues. In all groups of quails the conditions were identical, for example, terms of maintenance, landing closeness, front of feeding and drinking, food value of rations, parameters of microclimate and mode of illumination. The preparation of «Argenvit» (0,01%; 0,02%; 0,03%) has been used during the 21 days of growing, beginning from the first day.
The conducted researches confirmed the expedience of the use of nano-silver as liquid preparation of «Argenvit», which improves the basic high-quality indexes of meat of quail in 49 daily age birds. In subsequent researches it is necessary to prognosticate the quality of quail meat according to the term of their backwall.
The use of silver contents preparation «Argenvit» with a concentration 0,01-0,02% positively influenced on one of basic high-quality indexes of quail meat of its maintenance protein with its substantial increase.

Seasonal pig productivity depending on microclimate in different types of premises

Povod M.

It was studied the dependence of some microclimate factors in different technological zones of premises with different engineering aspects during four seasons of the year and pig growth intensity during feeding period on internal factors. It was determined that the temperature changes the most depends on engineering aspects during the winter and it has the less dependence on engineering aspects during the summer. In spring and autumn the difference between the outside temperature and the average temperature in premises was 4,9…..8.7 C. The temperature in different technological zone of premises depended on time of the year and premises type. The most contrasting it was in feeding area and most decisive in rest area.
The pig growth intensity depends on keeping conditions and time of the year. In modernized premises with automatic system of climate control animals had the highest growth intensity during year. In hoops, where the microclimate depends a lot on environment, the pig average daily gain in extreme time of the year, in winter and summer, was the lowest. At the same time, during transition period, in spring and autumn it was better than the same factor of animals which were kept in premises.
In premises where the system of climate control almost absent but the temperature condition is influenced by heat-insulating material of premises the pig intensity growth was lower than in modernized premises but higher in comparison with hoops in winter and summer. At the same time the average daily gain, during the transition period, was lower in premises in comparison with hoops.

Evaluation Criteria of Bovine Milk Biological Value and Cheese Production Suitability

Al-Bazi Mezher Kamil, Shapovalov S., Shkavro N., Fedotova L., Rusko N.

The full functioning of the organism greatly depends on the satisfaction of animal origin high quality protein needs, including milk, which practically fully digestibility. Protein synthesis greatly genetically determined, therefore, is interesting to study the breed characteristics of the milk protein production and its qualitative characteristics both in composition and in the technological properties. Conducting experiments in the same type of keeping and feeding by the action of paratypic factors with the same force and direction vector, to allow an objective evaluate the genetic potential expression of various cattle breeds. Advances in the modern molecular genetics techniques allows to identify some genes that control specific characteristics of milk production - the main proteins genes and hormones, which stimulate their expression, especially genes of kappa-casein and growth hormone. The kappa-casein gene (CSN3) of the Bos taurus is located on chromosome 6, among 13 known allelic variants of this gene the two are the most common alleles - A and B. They are the result of two point mutations at positions 136 and 148 bp, which cause the change of amino acid Tyr (A) to Iso (B) and Ala (B) to Asp (A), respectively. The growth hormone gene (GH) is located on chromosome 19 and consists from five exons and four introns, which plays a key role in the protein synthesis regulation, cell allocation, growth of the organism, the lactogenic action characterization and body fat mobilization process affection. AluI restriction polymorphism in the fifth exon of the gene associated with CG transverse, which cause the amino acid change in positions 127 - the Leucine (Leu) to Valine (Val) in the protein product of the gene, that enhances the growth rate of body weight, and lactation of lactating animals [1-6].
Methods. In order to study the different cattle breeds milk productivity and quality (breeding factory "Rodina", Bogodukhov district, Kharkov region) the experiment on three groups of animals was implemented: the I group included Simmental cattle, II - Red-and-White cattle and III - Black and White cattle breeds. On the start of experiments the all of animals were on 57-70 day of second and third lactation, with the average daily milk yield 24,1 ± 1,1; 25,6 ± 2,6; 20,7 ± 1,8 kg of milk, respectively. All animals until the end of lactation were in similar conditions of feeding, keeping and individual milking of. The daily milk production were considered. The chemical composition of the milk was estimated by IF-spectrometry by «Bentley-150" analyzer. The fatty acid composition of milk lipids investigated by Hewlett Packard 6890 (USA), the amino acid (AA) of the proteins - by AAA - 339 M analyzer (Czech Republic), other factors were determined by generally accepted standard methods. The polymorphism of QTL (k-casein and growth hormone), which controlled the individual traits of milk production were identify by PCR-RFLP. DNA was isolated from the blood of animals by the method of Kawasaki with modifications. For locus-specify amplification of kappa-casein gene fragment (CSN3) have used primers: F: 5'-GAAATCCCTACCATCAATACC-3 'and R: 5'-CCATCTACCTAGTTTAGATG-3' by the following temperature conditions: 94 º C -4 min., 94 º C - 30 sec, 58 º C - 30 sec, 72 º C - 30 sec - 35 cycles, 72 º C - 5 min. The growth hormone gene polymorphism (GH) was determined using the primers: F: 5'-GCTGCTCCTGAGGGCCCTTC-3 'and R: 5'-GCGGCGGCACTTCATGACCC -3'. The PCR temperature mode: DNA denaturation at 95oC - 1 min, primers annealing at 62 ° C - 1 min, and DNA chains synthesis at 72oC - 1 min, followed by 40 cycles as follows: 94oC - 30 sec, 60 ° C - 60 sec , 72oC - 120 sec (in the last cycle for 10 min). PCR products were cut by specific endonuclease restriction (Fermentas, Lithuania): HindIII for kappa-casein locus and AluI for growth hormone gene, according to the scheme: H2O - 3,5 ml, 10x buffer for enzyme - 1.0 ml, restriction - 0 5 ml and 5.0 ml PCR product in 10.0 ml of the mixture. Visualization of the results carried out by DNA fragments electrophoretic methods in 2% agarose gel.
Results. Simmental cattle milk productivity during lactation generally was 5221 ± 232, Ukrainian Red-and-White dairy cattle - 5389 ± 314; Ukrainian Black-and-White - 4541 ± 285 kg, which is better than the valuation requirements for the breed. The animals of URW breed are overtops by milk yield the Simmental cattle by 3.2%, and the UBW - by 11.9% (p <0.05). The milk fat production of Simmental and UBW breeds were close enough and during lactation it was 169.3 and 164.8 kg, and for URW - 207.4 kg of milk fat, which is higher than the Simmental and UBW cattle on 22.5 and 25, 8%. The amount of protein per lactation of Simmental was 159.2 kg, URW -167.1 kg, UBW - 136.2 kg, and the comparative advantage of the URW cattle to milk protein produce was associated with their higher milk yield with relatively few lesser concentration. The energy value of one kilogram of milk by Simmental cattle was 662.6 kcal, URW - 673.7, UBW - 673.9, in general, the energy value of milk yield per lactation was 13609.6, 15200.5 and 12812.4 MJ, respectively.
Milk protein status analysis showed that the total number of amino acids in milk was close enough for animal from different breeds: 32-32,3 g / kg, as well as the sum of essential amino acids (SEAA): 14.5-15 g / kg. SEAA share of the total amino acids in the milk of Simmental, Red-and-White and Black-and-White cattle were respectively 46.2, 46.1 and 46.7%.
As well known, in 100 g of high biological protein the value of SEAA should be not less than 40 g, and the ratio of SEAA to total nitrogen of protein (g/1g nitrogen) is not less than 2.5. In the analyzed milk of Simmental, Red-and-White and Black-and-white animals, these values were, respectively, 39.9, 41.4, 40.2 and 2.5 g, 2.58, 2.51 g / g of nitrogen. Total SEAA content in milk in relation to their number in the "ideal" protein (calculated in relation to the needs of an adult man) for cattle of I, II and III groups was, respectively, 49.2, 63.9, 52.1 mg / g of protein. The milk protein amino-acid score (AAS,%) was calculated from percentage of each SEAA of milk protein in relation to its content in the "ideal" protein.

Physical indicators of muscles of various localization in pigs of mirgorodska breed and its crosses

Shcherban T.V.

Constant selection work, aimed at increasing fattening and meat characteristics, favored the change of marketing and technological qualities of pork. As a result, a very important question at the present stage is finding out the influence of the given processes on the transformation of consumer qualities in muscles of different morpho-functional destination. Profound studying muscle tissue with the help of modern physical and chemical methods will enable to find better genotypic combinations for creating new meat types and lines using domestic breeds.
The aim of the research consisted in revealing the influence of industrial crossing of Mirgorodska pig breed with meat genotypes on physical parameters of marketed pork quality from different places of localization.
To achieve the set aim the following tasks have been solved: pure-bred and crossed young stock have been investigated concerning the acidity, tenderness, color, moisture-retaining power and the loss during thermal treatment of muscles in different parts of carcass; the comparative analysis of muscle value from technological viewpoint has been conducted depending on muscle tissue localization and genotypic factors, the level of influence of morpho-functional characteristics on muscle physical parameters has been studied; the correlation relations among physical parameters of meat quality have been defined.
Scientific and production investigations have been held at state enterprise “Decembrists’ pedigree plant” in Mirgorod district, Poltava region, laboratory tests – at the Institute of pig- breeding and agro-industrial production of the National Academy of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine. In order to test meat quality 3 castrated animals have been slaughtered in each group, and namely, purebred young animals of Mirgorodska breed (group I - the control one), and also the animals received as a result of crossing Mirgorodska breed sows with boars of such meat breeds as Large White of English selection – group II, Pietrain –group III, with crossed boars 1/2P ´1/2M – group IV and 1/2L´ 1/2M – group V. 7 muscle tissue samples of different localization from right semi-carcasses have been chosen after 24 hours of curing in a cooler – from ischial double-headed (m. glutaeobiceps), large lumbar (m. psoas major), the longest dorsal muscle (m. longissimus dorsi), internal oblique abdominal (m. obliquus abdominis internus), broad fascia tensor (m. tensor fasciae latae), semi-membrane (m. semimembranosus), caudal oblique head muscle (m. obliquus atlantis ( obliquus capitis caudalis B.N.A.)). The results of investigations testify to non-standard changes of active acidity in the process of autolysis in the longest dorsal muscle of tested young animals while including them into industrial crossing schemes of Pietrain and Landrace breed genotypes. Meat pH index of the other crosses corresponds to the normal pork requirements.
Performing two-phase disperse analysis has enabled to define the influence of localization place and full-bloodedness on physical properties of meat. It has been established that such basic indices as pH, moisture retaining power, loss in muscles during thermal treatment of investigated genotypic connections insignificantly depends on organized factors with the probability of received results in the limits of .95-.999. That is why the possibility of using Mirgorodska breed for receiving necessary technological characteristics of raw meat can be affirmed.

Biotechnological aspects of the "artificial cuticle for protection of chickens hatching eggs

Gavriluk О.I.

Remaining issues on farm animals reproduction

Goncharenko I.V., Vinnichuk D.T.

The first insemination of females causes in her genital tract and body in general, immunological reactions, which as assumed persists during fertilization, and in the initial period of development of the embryo. In the serum clinical-gynecology healthy cows are sperm antibodies in low to moderate concentrations, has no adverse reactions on reproductive function of cows. However, some species, some semen agglutination titer rises and reaches a level that becomes the main cause violations of fertility. In some cases, for example, the "custom" selection of prominent parents (to choose the best parent pairs), it is advisable by raising cross-reactions between serum of cows and semen of sires.
Technology preparation of semen for freezing is provided by the introduction into the environment of antibiotics. Series of new antibiotics (ceforanide, dicloxacillin, minocin, gentamicin and others), were synthesized with a broad spectrum of action, it turned out, in some cases, undesirable for semen. Research in various countries has shown that from a large number of new antibiotics that are most tolerant to semen sires were cefapirin and ceforanide.
The systematic study processes of reproduction forms the theoretical basis for many modern trends in biology, for example, parthenogenesis, penetration, cloning multicellular organisms, research crossovery and uncrossover gametes, gametic lethals, including "gametic" sterility, genetic engineering, obtaining somatic hybrids, including mosaic. Modern technology of production and use of semen doses of producers should be further improved, especially ratio of plasma to semen and other components of the native sperm. Special attention should be paid to immunological factors of reproduction of farm animals.The fertility of animals advisable to include in the basic breeding index of pedigree work in animal husbandry.

Effect on phitopreparation reproduced function cows and calves survival

Kozyr V.S., Filippov Yu.A., Antonenko P.P.

To improve efficiency continued search for effective herbal remedies for stimulation reproductive function of cows and keeping of calves. Dnipropetrovsk Institute of gastroenterology and Dnipropetrovsk State Agrarian University were developed herbal drugs that have been effective in livestock. They represent composition alcoholic extracts of medicinal plants with wide spectrum of pharmacological activities and are composed of alkaloids, glycosides, macro - and microelements, vitamins and other biologically active substances. These drugs in homeopathic doses have a very low toxicity and high effect complex actions different bodily functions (including sexual) and have a general restorative tonic properties, improves metabolism and biological system "cow-calf".
The experiment was conducted in the agricultural firm "Naukova" of Dnipropetrovsk oblast. On the principle of steam-analogues were formed 4 groups of mature dry cows of Ukrainian Black-and-White dairy breed (9 heads each). One experimental group with animal feed was given phytopreparations "Fitohol", the second - "Fitopank" and the third - "Hastroatsyd" (10 drops in 100 ml of boiled cooled water for three weeks 30 days before calving).
Analyzing biochemical indices of blood serum revealed that in all experimental animals groups were within minimum standards. After application extracts of plant origin in the experimental groups of cows total protein increased by 11-12%, calcium and inorganic phosphorus -by 7-8%, and carotene - 8-10% (in comparison with control group).
Research has shown that cows treated with herbal drugs, calving was normal. Gynecological examinations have not been cases delay of placenta and at the time held process of uterine involution. At the same time, half of animals in control group had retention of placenta and uterine involution.
Based on 100 cows in the control group received 70 calves, in group fed "Fitohol" - 90, and in other research groups - 100 healthy calves. Service period of cows in control group was 80-90 days and 40-65 days in research.
Newborn calves of experienced cows compared with the control, total protein content was greater by 8.5%, a total calcium of 15.8%, inorganic phosphorus - 28.7%, vitamin A by 25% and reserve alkalinity - by 15.5%, but they ranged within physiological norm. Calves obtained from cows of the control group suffered dyspepsia and metabolic disorders, from research groups was only one sick calf in mild form. Calves born from cows in experimental groups according to the intensity of growth at 40 g/day exceeded their peers in the control group.
These phytopreparations are tested on practice in production conditions of agricultural enterprises of Dnipropetrovsk, Donetsk, Zaporizhia regions and have received highly positive assessment experts of animal husbandry. The use of herbal medicine "Fitohol", "Fitopank" and "Hastrotsyd" for dry cows 30 days before calving contributes to the normal course of calving, timely separation of placenta and involution of the uterus and the complete preservation of newborn calves.

The morphometric indexes of spermatozoa of bulls-producers of different types of stressresistant

Chernenko О.

In the article the results of researches of morphometric indexes are expounded depending on stressresistant bulls. It is set that high stressresistant bulls have more long head of spermatozoon on 0,85 мкм at P>0,95, neck, body and tail accordingly on: 0,09; 0,18 and 1,93 mkm at P<0,95, and general length of spermatozoon on 3,05 mkm at P<0,95. Promery which characterize development of spermatozoa breadthways also anymore at high stressresistant of animals, in particular heads on 0,18 mkm at P<0,95, necks on 0,34 mkm at P>0,95, bodies on 0,13 mkm at P<0,95 and tail on 0,19 mkm at Р>0,95. An area and index of head appeared large for bulls with high stressresistant, accordingly on 9,61mkm2(Р>0,95) and 0,10 (Р<0,95). A difference is set on volume heads of spermatozoa on 10,78 mkm3 at P<0,95, necks on 0,28 mkm3 at Р<0,95, bodies on 0,17 mkm3 at P<0,95, tail on 3,40 mkm3 at P>0,95 and general volume of spermatozoa on 18,18mkm3 at P>0,95 with advantage of animals of high stressresistant type.
Statistically meaningful influence of factor of stressresistant is observed on : general length of spermatozoa, length of head, width of neck and tail, area of head, volume of head, neck and tail and general volume of spermatozoa within the limits of 9,9 – 42,4 % at P>0,95-0,999.
Between the level of stressresistant bulls and separate morphometric indexes of spermatozoa there is statistically a meaningful line cross-correlation connection, that high stressresistant bulls accompanied greater length of head (+ 0,501 ±0,216 at P > 0,95), width of neck (+ 0,539 ±0,205 at P > 0,95), by volume of heads (+ 0,609 ±0,182 at P > 0,99), by volume of necks (+ 0,617 ±0,179 at P > 0,99) and by the general volume of spermatozoa (+ 0,581 ±0,191 at P > 0,95).

Effective approach to preservation and use the boar epididymal spermatozoa in vitro

Shcherbak O.V.

Improved components embryotechnology reproduction of pigs based on effective sperm cryopreservation epididymal spermatozoa boars. The use this technology cryopreservation provides the formation of in vitro embryos of pigs on the level of 53.2 % is effective to meet the objectives of programs preserve the gene pool of farm animals at the cellular level.
It is shown that an effective way of introducing the latest advances in genetics and biotechnology in the selection and breeding work is the use of genetically valuable semen sires pigs as ejaculation sperm and removed from the tail (epididymis) appendage of the testis.
The aim of the study was to evaluate the results of the formation of embryos outside the body viability of cryopreserved epididymal spermatozoa boar by using thinning medium for lactose-yolk-glycerol-based (LYG).
For the experimental study of the appendages of the testis were taken immediately after castration three boars of Veluka Bila. Immature oocyte-cumulus complexes prepared from pig ovaries and cultured outside the body 46 hours. Removal of diluent and selection of motile epidydymal spermatozoa boars were performed in a modified TALP medium without Ca2+. Epididymal spermatozoa co- incubated with mature oocyte in vitro in TALP-IVF medium with the addition of a mixture of PHE (penicillamine, hipotaurin and epinephrine) and a solution of heparin within 18 hours. Embryos were cultured in vitro in NCSU - 23 medium for 5 - 6 days and assessed the effectiveness of their development in vitro.
Established that removed immediately epididymal spermatozoa showed motility on average at 6.3 points. Deconservation spermatozoa boars demonstrated mobility at an average of 1.7 points. It is shown that the mobility of sperm after thawing epididymal spermatozoa may decline to 71.43 - 83.33 %, but this activity provides for the formation of gametes zygotes in vitro at the level of 50.0 (27 zygote with 54) to 61.1 % (22 zygote with 36). The efficiency of cryopreservation epididymal spermatozoa boars depends on the initial manifestation of their mobility and can be quite high for use LYG-medium. When using epididymal spermatozoa to fertilize matured oocytes in vitro level of pig embryos allows further use of the genetic potential of animals and improve complex biotechnological methods to achieve the objectives to preserve the gene pool of farm animals in Ukraine.

Stimulation of natural food base when rearing carp larvae

Moskalenko N., Grygorenko T., Bazaeva A., Mykhaylenko N.

Influence of level of sexual dimorphism on the egg productivity of bird of reserve gene pool

Ostapenko V.I.